Today, there are hundreds of documented beer styles and a handful of organizations with their own unique classifications. As beer styles continue to evolve, understanding the sensory side of craft beer will help you more deeply appreciate and share your knowledge and enthusiasm for the beverage of beer.

Take a deeper dive into America’s craft beer styles and improve your ability to describe the tastes, textures and aromas of beer. Here is your study guide that will help prepare you for what you might encounter when tasting craft beer.


How to Use the Study Guide

Downloadable Resources

The CraftBeer.com Beer Styles Study Guide (below and available as a PDF) is for those who want to dive even deeper and includes quantitative style statistics not found in the Beer Styles section. Using an alphabetical list of triggers — from alcohol to yeast variety — this text will help describe possible characteristics of a specific beer style.

The best part of learning about craft beer is getting to taste and experience what you’re studying. Use the CraftBeer.com Tasting Sheet to help you analyze and describe what you taste and if it’s appropriate for a particular beer style.

The Beer Styles Study Guide may provide more information than many beer novices care to know. However, as your beer journey unfolds, your desire for more descriptors and resources will grow.


Do All Craft Brewers Brew Beer to Style?

Craft beer resides at the intersection of art and science. It is up to each individual brewer to decide whether they want to create beer within specific style guidelines or forge a new path and break the mold of traditional styles.

Because so many craft brewers brew outside style guidelines, it is impossible to make a list that fully represents the spectrum of beers being created today. CraftBeer.com Beer Styles include many common styles being made in the U.S. today, but is not exhaustive.

Common U.S. Beer Styles

Craft brewers use a wide variety of ingredients to achieve the aroma, body, flavor and finish they desire in their beer. They often take classic, old-world styles from great brewing countries like England, Germany and Belgium and add their own twists by modifying the amount or type of ingredients or the brewing processes. Due to the popularity of craft beer in America, there are now multiple beer styles uniquely credited to the U.S.

Due to the constant experimentation and exploration by today’s U.S. brewers, new beer styles are constantly evolving. That makes it difficult, if not impossible, to fully document all types of beer being made at any given time. Another factor is that new beer styles usually become established by developing a track record of multiple breweries making the same type of beer over years and years. In other words, it takes time before any trendy new type of beer is deemed a recognized beer style.

To create this study guide, we looked at the world beer styles recognized by the Brewers Association (publishers of CraftBeer.com) and narrowed that list down to 79 styles in 15 style families. Descriptive terms are always listed from least to most intense.


Overview of the Study Guide

Explanation of Quantitative Style Statistics

  • Original Gravity (OG): The specific gravity of wort (unfermented beer) before fermentation. A measure of the total amount of solids that are dissolved in the wort, it compares the density of the wort to the density of water, which is conventionally given as 1.000 at 60 Fahrenheit.
  • Final Gravity (FG): The specific gravity of a beer as measured when fermentation is complete (when all desired fermentable sugars have been converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide gas). When fermentation has occurred, this number is always less than Original Gravity.
  • Alcohol By Volume (ABV): A measurement of the alcohol content in terms of the percentage volume of alcohol per volume of beer. Caution: This measurement is always higher than Alcohol by Weight (not included in this guide). To calculate the approximate volumetric alcohol content, subtract FG from OG and divide by 0.0075.

Example: OG = 1.050, FG = 1.012 ABV = (1.050 – 1.012) / 0.0075 ABV = 0.038 / 0.0075 ABV = 5.067 ABV = 5% (approximately)

  • International Bitterness Units (IBUs): 1 bitterness unit = 1 milligram of isomerized (exposed to heat) hop alpha acids in one liter of beer. Can range from 0 (lowest—no bitterness) to above 100 IBUs. Usually the general population cannot perceive bitterness above or below a specific range of IBUs (said to be below 8 and above 80 IBUs by some sources).
  • Bitterness Ratio (BU:GU): A comparison of IBUs (Bitterness Units) to sugars (Gravity Units) in a beer. .5 is perceived as balanced, less than .5 is perceived as sweeter and over .5 is perceived as more bitter. Formula: Divide IBU by the last two digits of Original Gravity (remove the 1.0) to give relative bitterness. Note: Carbonation also balances beer’s bitterness, but is not factored in this equation. This is a concept from Ray Daniels, creator of the Cicerone® Certification Program.

Example: pale ale with 37 IBUs and an OG of 1.052 is 37/52 = 0.71 BU:GU

  • Standard Reference Method (SRM): Provides a numerical range representing the color of a beer. The common range is 2-50. The higher the SRM, the darker the beer. SRM represents the absorption of specific wavelengths of light. It provides an analytical method that brewers use to measure and quantify the color of a beer. The SRM concept was originally published by the American Society of Brewing Chemists.

Examples: Very Light (1-1.5), Straw (2-3 SRM), Pale (4), Gold (5-6), Light Amber (7), Amber (8), Medium Amber (9), Copper/Garnet (10-12), Light Brown (13-15), Brown/Reddish Brown/Chestnut Brown (16-17), Dark Brown (18-24), Very Dark (25-39), Black (40+)

  • Volumes of CO2 (v/v): Volumes of CO2 commonly vary from 1-3+ v/v (volumes of dissolved gas per volume of liquid) with 2.5-2.7 volumes being the most common in the U.S. market. Beer’s carbonation comes from carbon dioxide gas, which is a naturally occurring byproduct created during fermentation by yeast and a variety of microorganisms. The amount of carbonation is expressed in terms of “volumes” of CO2. A volume is the space the CO2 gas would occupy at standard temperature and pressure, compared to the volume of beer in which it’s dissolved. So one keg of beer at 2.5 volumes of CO2 contains enough gas to fill 2.5 kegs with CO2.
  • Apparent Attenuation (AA): A simple measure of the extent of fermentation wort has undergone in the process of becoming beer, Apparent Attenuation reflects the amount of malt sugar that is converted to ethanol during fermentation. The result is expressed as a percentage and equals 65% to 80% for most beers. Or said more simply: Above 80% is very high attenuation with little residual sugar. Below 60% is low attenuation with more residual sugar remaining. Formula: AA = [(OG-FG) / (OG-1)] x 100

Example: OG = 1.080, FG = 1.020 AA = [(1.080 – 1.020) / (1.080 – 1)] x 100 AA = (0.060 / 0.080) x 100 AA = 0.75 x 100 AA = 75%

  • Commercial Examples: List some U.S. brewery produced examples of this style.

The A-Z of Beer Styles

Use this alphabetical list of triggers as a guide to help you when describing possible characteristics of a specific beer style.

Alcohol

  • Ranges: not detectable, mild, noticeable, harsh
  • 
A synonym for ethyl alcohol or ethanol, the colorless primary alcohol component of beer.
  • Alcohol ranges for beer vary from less than 3.2% to greater than 14% ABV. 
Sensed in aroma, flavor and palate of beer
  • 
Fusel alcohol can also exist in beer

Brewing and Conditioning Process

  • Brewers use a wide variety of techniques to modify the brewing process. Some of the variables they play with might include variable mashing, steeping, unique fermentation temperatures, multiple yeast additions, barrel aging and blending, dry hopping and bottle conditioned.

Carbonation (CO2): Visual

  • 
Ranges: none, slow, medium, fast rising bubbles
  • Carbonation is a main ingredient in beer. It lends body or weight on the tongue and stimulates the trigeminal nerves, which sense temperature, texture and pain in the face. Carbonation can be detected as an aroma (carbonic acid). It also affects appearance and is what creates the collar of foam common to most beer styles.
  • 
Carbonation can be naturally occurring (produced by yeast during fermentation) or added to beer under pressure. Nitrogen can also be added to beer, providing smaller bubbles and a softer mouthfeel compared to CO2.


Clarity: The degree to which solids in suspension are absent in beer; different from color and brightness.

  • Ranges: brilliant, clear, slight haze, hazy, opaque
  • 
Solids can include unfermented sugars, proteins, yeast sediments and more.
  • The degree to which solids are present in solution is referred to as turbidity.


Collar of Foam

  • Head Retention/Texture
    • Retention Ranges: none, poor (up to 15 seconds), moderate (15 to 60 seconds), good (more than 60 seconds)
    • Texture Ranges: thin, interrupted, foamy, fluffy, rocky, mousse-like

Color (SRM): 
See SRM under Quantitative above.

Country of Origin

  • The country from which a style originates

Food Pairing: Cheese, Entree, Dessert

Glass

Hops

  • 
Flavor and aroma ranges: citrus, tropical, fruity, floral, herbal, onion-garlic, sweaty, spicy, woody, green, pine, spruce, resinous
  • 
Bitterness ranges: restrained, moderate, aggressive, harsh
  • Hops deliver resins and essential oils that influence beer’s aroma, flavor, bitterness, head retention, astringency, and perceived sweetness. They also increase beer’s stability and shelf life.
  • Brewers today use well over 100 different varieties of hops worldwide. Hops grown in the U.S. contribute an estimated 30 percent to the global supply.

Malt

  • Flavor and aroma ranges:  bread flour, grainy, biscuit, bready, toast, caramel, prune-like, roast, chocolate, coffee, smoky, acrid
  • 
Malt has been called the soul of beer. It is the main fermentable ingredient, providing the sugars that yeast use to create alcohol and carbonation.
  • Malt is converted barley or other grains that have been steeped, germinated, heated, kilned (or roasted in a drum), cooled, dried and then rested.
  • 
A wide variety of barley and other malts are used to make beer, including pale malt (pilsner and pale two-row), higher temperature kilned malt (Munich and Vienna), roasted/specialty malt (chocolate and black) and unmalted barley. Wheat malt is commonly used as well.
  • Malt provides fermentable and non-fermentable sugars and proteins that influence beer’s aroma, alcohol, body, color, flavor and head retention.

Other Ingredients

  • 
Adjuncts are ingredients that have typically not been malted, but are a source of fermentable sugars.
  • Common adjuncts include: candy sugar, honey, molasses, refined sugar, treacle, maple syrup
  • 
Unmalted starchy adjuncts: oats, rye, wheat, corn/maize, rice
    • Note: Many of these grains can be malted to create unique flavors compared to their unmalted counterparts.
  • Other: fruit, herbs, roasted (unmalted) barley or wheat, spices, wood


Oxidative/Aged Qualities

  • Can come from hops, malt or yeast. Only listed where appropriate for the specific style.
  • Aroma/Flavor: almond, blackcurrant, E-2-nonenal (papery/cardboard), honey, metallic, sherry, sweat socks, others
  • 
Color: Beer darkens over time due to oxygen ingress.

Palate

  • 
Palate refers to the non-taste sensations felt on the mouth and tongue when tasting a beer. The palate of a beer can be sensed as:
  • Astringency
    • Ranges: low, medium(-), medium, medium(+), high
  • 
Body
    • Ranges: drying, soft, mouth-coating, sticky
  • Palate Carbonation
    • Ranges: low, medium, high
  • Length/Finish
    • Ranges: short (less than 15 seconds), medium (up to 60 seconds), long (more than 60 seconds)

Temperature

  • Storage of draught beer should remain at 38° F to retain the level of carbonation created during fermentation.
  • The service temperature of beer has an impact on the sensory aspect of a beer.
  • In general, a beer will exhibit an increase in perceived aromas and flavors if served warmer than a beer that is served at a cooler temperature.
  • A general rule of thumb calls for ales to be served at a warmer temperature (45-55° F) than their lager counterparts (40-45° F).


Water

  • Common taste descriptors: chalk, flint, sulfur and more
  • 
Beer is mostly water, which makes water quite an important ingredient. Some brewers make their beer without altering the chemistry of their water sources. Many do modify the water to make it most suitable to deliver the beer characteristics they hope to highlight. It provides minerals and ions that add various qualities to beer.
  • 
Common minerals: carbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate

Yeast, Microorganisms and Fermentation Byproducts

  • Yeast eats sugars from malted barley and other fermentables, producing carbonation, alcohol and aromatic compounds. The flavor of yeast differs based on yeast strain, temperature, time exposed to the beer, oxygen and other variables.
  • Types of Yeast:
    • 
Ale: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (ester driven). Commonly referred to as top fermenting yeast, it most often ferments at warmer temperatures (60-70F).
    • Lager: Saccharomyces Pastorianus (often lends sulfuric compounds). Commonly referred to as bottom fermenting yeast, it most often ferments at cooler temperatures (45-55F).
    • 
Weizen Yeast: Common to some German-style wheat beers and is considered an ale yeast.
    • Brettanomyces:  wild yeast with flavors like barnyard, tropical fruit, and more.
    • 
Microorganisms: (bacteria) 
Acetobacter (produces acetic acid), Lactobacillus/Pediococcus (produce lactic acid), others

Byproducts of Fermentation

  • For a robust spreadsheet on many byproducts or agents in beer see Flavor Components in Beer (PDF)
  • Common byproducts of yeast fermentation:
    • 
Esters:
      • Aromas (volatiles): apple, apricot, banana, blackcurrant, cherry, fig, grapefruit, kiwi, peach, pear, pineapple, plum, raisin, raspberry, strawberry, others
      • Common esters include:
        • 
Isoamyl acetate (common from weizen ale yeast): banana, pear
        • 
Ethyl acetate: nail polish remover, solvent
        • Ethyl hexanoate: red apple, fennel
    • Phenols
      • Common phenols include:
        • 
4-vinyl guaiacol: clove, cinnamon, vanilla
        • Chlorophenols: antiseptic, mouthwash
        • Syringol: smoky, campfire
        • Tannins/Polyphenols: velvet, astringent, sandpaper
    • Other fermentation byproducts
      • Common byproducts include (when acceptable to style):
        • 4-ethyl-phenol: barnyard, mice
        • 4-ethyl-guaiacol: smoked meat, clove
        • 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol: lightstruck
        • 2,3-butanedione (Diacetyl)
        • Acetaldehyde
        • Dimethyl sulphide (DMS)
        • Hydrogen sulphide

What is Craft Beer? What is a Craft Brewer?

Today is the best time in U.S. history to be a beer lover. The average American lives within 10 miles of a brewery, and the U.S. has more beer styles and brands to choose from than any other beer market in the world.

The definition of “craft beer” is difficult, as it means many different things to many different beer lovers. Thus, craft beer is not defined by CraftBeer.com. However, our parent organization, the Brewers Association, does define what it means to be an American craft brewer: A U.S. craft brewer is a smaller producer (making less than six million barrels of beer a year) and is independently owned. This definition allows the Brewers Association to provide statistics on the growing craft brewery community, which accounts for 99 percent of America’s 4,600+ breweries.

Visit BrewersAssociation.org for the complete craft brewer definition and details on the craft beer industry market segments: brewpubs, microbreweries and regional craft breweries.

Why Craft Beer?

Craft beer is enjoyed during everyday celebrations and is viewed by many as one of life’s special pleasures. Each glass displays the creativity and passion of its maker and the complexity of its ingredients. Craft beer is treasured by millions who see it as not merely a fermented beverage, but something to be shared, revered and enjoyed in moderation (see Savor the Flavor).

In the food arts world, craft beer is a versatile beverage that not only enhances food when expertly paired with a dish, but is also often brought into the kitchen as a cooking ingredient. Because of this, you will see suggested food pairings for each style in this guide. If you would like to geek out even further on beer and food pairing, check out CraftBeer.com’s Beer & Food Course (a free download).


Table of Contents

  1. Pale Ales
  2. American Amber Ale
  3. American Pale Ale
  4. English-Style Bitter
  5. Blonde Ale
  6. English-Style Pale Ale (ESB)
  7. Dark Lagers
  8. American Amber Lager
  9. German-Style Dunkel
  10. German-Style Marzen / Oktoberfest
  11. German-Style Schwarzbier
  12. Vienna-Style Lager
  13. Brown Ales
  14. American Brown Ale
  15. English-Style Brown Ale
  16. English-Style Mild
  17. India Pale Ales
  18. American IPA
  19. English-Style IPA
  20. Imperial India Pale Ale
  21. Wheat Beers
  22. American-Style Wheat Wine Ale
  23. American Wheat
  24. Belgian-Style Witbier
  25. Berliner-Style Weisse
  26. German-Style Dunkelweizen
  27. German-Style Hefeweizen
  1. Strong Ales
  2. American Barley Wine
  3. American Imperial Red Ale
  4. British-Style Barley Wine Ale
  5. English-Style Old Ale
  6. Belgian Styles
  7. Belgian-Style Blonde Ale
  8. Belgian-Style Dubbel
  9. Belgian-Style Golden Strong Ale
  10. Belgian-Style Pale Ale
  11. Belgian-Style Quadrupel
  12. Belgian-Style Saison
  13. Belgian-Style Tripel
  14. Hybrid Beers
  15. American Cream Ale
  16. French-Style Biere de Garde
  17. California Common
  18. German-Style Brown/Altbier
  19. German-Style Kolsch
  20. Irish-Style Red
  21. Porters
  22. American Imperial Porter
  23. Baltic-Style Porter
  24. English-Style Brown Porter
  25. Robust Porter
  26. Smoke Porter
  27. Stouts
  28. American Imperial Stout
  29. American Stout
  30. English-Style Oatmeal Stout
  31. English-Style Sweet Stout (Milk Stout)
  32. Irish-Style Dry Stout
  33. Bocks
  34. German-Style Bock
  35. German-Style Doppelbock
  36. German-Style Maibock
  37. German-Style Weizenbock
  1. Scottish-Style Ales
  2. Scotch Ale/Wee Heavy
  3. Scottish-Style Ale
  4. Wild/Sour Beers
  5. American Brett
  6. American Sour
  7. Belgian-Style Flanders
  8. Belgian-Style Fruit Lambic
  9. Belgian-Style Lambic/Gueuze
  10. Contemporary Gose
  11. Pilseners and Pale Lagers
  12. American Lager
  13. Bohemian-Style Pilsener
  14. European-Style Export
  15. German-Style Helles
  16. German-Style Pilsener
  17. Specialty Beers
  18. American Black Ale
  19. Barrel-Aged Beer
  20. Chocolate Beer
  21. Coffee Beer
  22. Fruit and Field Beer
  23. Gluten Free
  24. Herb and Spice Beer
  25. Honey Beer
  26. Pumpkin Beer
  27. Rye Beer
  28. Session Beer
  29. Smoke Beer
  30. Specialty Beer

American Amber Ale

Style Family: Pale Ales

American-style amber ales have medium-high to high maltiness with medium to low caramel character. They are characterized by American-variety hops, which produce medium hop bitterness, flavor and aroma. American ambers are usually darker in color, have more caramel flavor and less hop aromatics, and may have more body. This style was first made popular by brewers from California and the Pacific Northwest.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.048 - 1.058
  • FG1.012 - 1.018
  • ABV4.4% - 6.1%
  • IBU25 - 45
  • BU:GU0.62 - 0.78
  • SRM11 - 18
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation69 - 75

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • ColorCopper to Reddish Brown
  • ClarityClear to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMedium Cheddar
  • EntréeBarbecue
  • DessertBanana Pound Cake
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorCitrus-like character is acceptable
  • Hop IngredientsHorizon, Cascade, Centennial
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorCaramel
  • Malt IngredientsEnglish Pale Ale or American Two-Row, Crystal, Victory
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersThere may below levels of fruity-ester flavor

source: CraftBeer.com


American Pale Ale

Style Family: Pale Ales

An American interpretation of a classic English style. Characterized by floral, fruity, citrus-like, piney, resinous, or sulfur-like American-variety hop character, producing medium to medium-high hop bitterness, flavor and aroma. American-style pale ales have medium body and low to medium maltiness that may include low caramel malt character.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.050
  • FG1.008 - 1.014
  • ABV4.4% - 5.4%
  • IBU30 - 50
  • BU:GU0.68 - 1.00
  • SRM6 - 14
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation72 - 82

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessDry-hopping or late hop additions to the kettle are common
  • ColorDeep Golden to Copper or Light Brown
  • ClarityClear to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMild or Medium Cheddar
  • EntréeRoasted or Grilled Meats
  • DessertApple Pie
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are medium to medium-high, exhibiting fruity, floral, and citrus-like American-variety hop aromas. Hop bitterness is medium to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsHorizon, Cascade, Centennial
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorBiscuit, Bready, Caramel
  • Malt IngredientsPale, Caramel, Munich
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterSulfite content may vary, but carbonate content should be relatively low

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersCitrus, Tropical Fruit, Pine

source: CraftBeer.com


English-Style Bitter

Style Family: Pale Ales

A very sessionable, lower-alcohol, malt-driven style. Broad style description commonly associated with cask-conditioned beers. The light- to medium-bodied ordinary bitter is gold to copper in color, with a low residual malt sweetness. Hop bitterness is medium.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.033 - 1.038
  • FG1.006 - 1.012
  • ABV3.0% - 4.2%
  • IBU20 - 35
  • BU:GU0.61 - 0.92
  • SRM5 - 12
  • CO2 Volumes1 - 1.5
  • Apparent Attenuation68 - 82

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • ColorGold to Copper
  • ClarityClear to Brilliant
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseFirm English Cheeses
  • EntréeRoasted Chicken, Fish and Chips
  • DessertOatmeal Raisin Walnut Cookies
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma may be evident at the brewer's discretion
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorLow to medium residual malt sweetness is present
  • Malt IngredientsBritish Pale Ale, Aromatic, Crystal, Special Roast
  • Palate BodyDrying to Soft
  • Palate CarbonationLow
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity esters are common.
  • Fermentation ByproductsLow-level diacetyl aromas and flavor are acceptable

source: CraftBeer.com


Blonde Ale

Style Family: Pale Ales

One of the most approachable styles, a golden or blonde ale is an easy-drinking beer that is visually appealing and has no particularly dominating malt or hop characteristics. Rounded and smooth, it is an American classic known for its simplicity. Sometimes referred to as “golden ale.” These beers can have honey, spices and fruit added, and may be fermented with lager or ale yeast.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.045 - 1.054
  • FG1.008 - 1.016
  • ABV4.1% - 5.1%
  • IBU15 - 25
  • BU:GU0.33 - 0.45
  • SRM3 - 7
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation71 - 82

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • ColorStraw to Light Amber
  • ClarityBrilliant to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin to Interrupted
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheesePepper Jack
  • EntréeSpaghetti and Meatballs
  • DessertSugar Cookies
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is low to medium-low, present but not dominant. Hop bitterness is low to medium-low.
  • Hop IngredientsWilliamette
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorLight malt sweetness is present in the flavor. Bread, toast, biscuit and wheat flavors are common.
  • Malt IngredientsAmerican Two-Row, Crystal
  • Other ingredientsMay include up to 25 percent Malted Wheat and sugar adjuncts.
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsNot common to style.
  • EstersFruity esters may be perceived but not predominant.

source: CraftBeer.com


English-Style Pale Ale (ESB)

Style Family: Pale Ales

ESB stands for “extra special bitter.” This style is known for its balance and the interplay between malt and hop bitterness. English pale ales display earthy, herbal English-variety hop character. Medium to high hop bitterness, flavor and aroma should be evident. The yeast strains used in these beers lend a fruitiness to their aromatics and flavor, referred to as esters. The residual malt and defining sweetness of this richly flavored, full-bodied bitter is medium to medium-high.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.040 - 1.056
  • FG1.008 - 1.016
  • ABV4.4% - 5.3%
  • IBU20 - 40
  • BU:GU0.50 - 0.71
  • SRM5 - 12
  • CO2 Volumes1.5 - 2
  • Apparent Attenuation71 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • ColorGold to Copper
  • ClarityClear to Brilliant
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseEnglish-Style Cheeses
  • EntréeRoasted Chicken, Fish and Chips
  • DessertMaple Bread Pudding
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor is medium to medium-high. Hop bitterness is medium to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorResidual malt and defining sweetness is medium to medium-high
  • Malt IngredientsBritish Pale Ale, Crystal
  • Other ingredientsSome versions use sugar, corn or wheat
  • Palate BodyModerate
  • Palate CarbonationLow
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterSome versions use medium to high sulfate

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester and very low diacetyl flavors are acceptable, but should be minimized in this form of bitter

source: CraftBeer.com


American Amber Lager

Style Family: Dark Lagers

A widely available, sessionable craft beer style that showcases both malt and hops. Amber lagers are a medium-bodied lager with a toasty or caramel-like malt character. Hop bitterness can range from very low to medium-high. Brewers may use decoction mash and dry-hopping to achieve advanced flavors.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.042 - 1.056
  • FG1.010 - 1.018
  • ABV4.8% - 5.4%
  • IBU18 - 30
  • BU:GU0.43 - 0.54
  • SRM6 - 14
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation68 - 76

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessCan use decoction mash and dry-hopping to achieve advanced flavors
  • ColorGold to Copper
  • ClarityClear to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseWhite Cheddar
  • EntréeGrilled Meats and Vegetables
  • DessertFruit Desserts
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor and aroma are very low to medium-high. Hop bitterness is very low to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorLow to medium-low caramel-type or toasted malt aromas are often present
  • Malt IngredientsTwo-row, Munich, Vienna, Caramel
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersNot common to style

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Dunkel

Style Family: Dark Lagers

A German-style dunkel, sometimes referred to as a Munchner dunkel, should have chocolate-like, roast malt, bread-like or biscuit-like aromas that come from the use of Munich dark malt.This beer does not offer an overly sweet impression, but rather a mild balance between malt sweetness and hop character.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.048 - 1.056
  • FG1.014 - 1.018
  • ABV4.8% - 5.3%
  • IBU16 - 25
  • BU:GU0.33 - 0.45
  • SRM15 - 17
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation68 - 71

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessA decoction mash is commonly used
  • ColorLight Brown to Dark Brown
  • ClarityClear to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseWashed-Rind Munster
  • EntréeSausages, Roasted Vegetables
  • DessertCandied Ginger Beer Cake
  • GlassVase
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived. Hop bitterness is low
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt aroma is low to medium, with chocolate-like, roasted malt, bread-like or biscuit-like notes
  • Malt IngredientsMunich, Carafa Special II
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterModerate carbonate water

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersNot common to style

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Marzen / Oktoberfest

Style Family: Dark Lagers

A beer rich in malt with a balance of clean, hop bitterness. Bread or biscuit-like malt aroma and flavor is common. Originating in Germany, this style used to be seasonally available in the spring (“Marzen” meaning “March”), with the fest-style versions tapped in October.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.050 - 1.060
  • FG1.012 - 1.020
  • ABV5.1% - 6.0%
  • IBU18 - 25
  • BU:GU0.36 - 0.42
  • SRM4 - 15
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation67 - 76

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessA decoction mash is commonly used
  • ColorPale to Reddish Brown
  • ClarityBrilliant
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseJalapeno Jack
  • EntréeKielbasa
  • DessertCoconut Flan
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are very low to low. Hop bitterness is medium low to medium
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorToast
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Vienna, Munich
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersNot common to style

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Schwarzbier

Style Family: Dark Lagers

Sometimes called black lagers, they may remind some of German-style dunkels, but schwarzbiers are drier, darker and more roast-oriented.These very dark brown to black beers have a surprisingly pale-colored foam head (not excessively brown) with good cling quality. They have a mild roasted malt character without the associated bitterness. Malt flavor and aroma is at low to medium levels of sweetness.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.052
  • FG1.010 - 1.016
  • ABV3.8% - 4.9%
  • IBU22 - 30
  • BU:GU0.50 - 0.58
  • SRM25 - 30
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation69 - 77

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • ColorVery Dark Brown to Black
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMunster-Style Cheese
  • EntréeMushroom Strudel
  • DessertFruit Tart
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are very low to low, deriving from noble-type hops. Hop bitterness is low to medium
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorReminiscent of bitter chocolate or coffee. Malt sweetness is low to medium, and incorporates mild roasted malt character without the associated bitterness
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Munich, Crystal, Chocolate Malt, Black Roasted Barley, Carafa Special II
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersNot common to style

source: CraftBeer.com


Vienna-Style Lager

Style Family: Dark Lagers

Ranges from copper to reddish brown in color. The beer is characterized by malty aroma and slight malt sweetness. The malt aroma and flavor should have a notable degree of toasted and/or slightly roasted malt character. Hop bitterness is low to medium-low.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.046 - 1.056
  • FG1.012 - 1.018
  • ABV4.8% - 5.4%
  • IBU22 - 28
  • BU:GU0.48 - 0.50
  • SRM12 - 26
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation68 - 74

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • ColorCopper to Reddish Brown
  • ClarityBrilliant to Clear
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMild Cheeses
  • EntréeGrilled Meats and Vegetables
  • DessertAlmond Biscotti
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma, flavor and bitterness are very low to low
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorAroma should have a notable degree of toasted and/or slightly roasted malt character. Malt flavor is slightly sweet
  • Malt IngredientsVienna
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterHard carbonate water

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersNot common to style

source: CraftBeer.com


American Brown Ale

Style Family: Brown Ales

Roasted malt, caramel-like and chocolate-like characters should be of medium intensity in both flavor and aroma. American-style brown ales have evident low to medium hop flavor and aroma and medium to high hop bitterness. The history of this style dates back to U.S. homebrewers who were inspired by English-style brown ales and porters. It sits in flavor between those British styles and is more bitter than both.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.040 - 1.060
  • FG1.010 - 1.018
  • ABV4.2% - 6.3%
  • IBU25 - 45
  • BU:GU0.62 - 0.75
  • SRM15 - 26
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation70 - 75

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessMay be dry-hopped
  • ColorDeep Copper to Very Dark Brown
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor to Moderate
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin to Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Gouda
  • EntréeGrilled Meats and Vegetables
  • DessertPear Fritters
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are low to medium. Hop bitterness is medium to high
  • Hop IngredientsU.S., U.K., Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorCaramel, Chocolate, Toast
  • Malt IngredientsPale, Crystal, Chocolate, Victory
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester flavors, if present, should be subdued

source: CraftBeer.com


English-Style Brown Ale

Style Family: Brown Ales

English-style brown ales range from dryer (Northern English) to sweeter (Southern English) maltiness. Roast malt tones (chocolate, nutty) may sometimes contribute to the flavor and aroma profile. Hop bitterness is very low to low, with very little hop flavor and aroma. Known for rich and advanced malt aroma and flavor without centering too much on hops, this style is extremely sessionable and food-friendly.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.040 - 1.050
  • FG1.008 - 1.014
  • ABV4.2% - 6.0%
  • IBU15 - 25
  • BU:GU0.38 - 0.50
  • SRM12 - 17
  • CO2 Volumes1 - 1.5
  • Apparent Attenuation72 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • ColorCopper to Very Dark
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Gouda
  • EntréeRoasted Pork, Steak, Nuts
  • DessertPear Fritters
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor is very low. Hop bitterness is very low to low
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorBalance ranges from dry to sweet maltiness. Roast malt tones of toffee, nuts and caramel sometimes contribute to the flavor profile
  • Malt IngredientsPale Ale, Special Roast, Victory, Crystal, Pale Chocolate
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterModerate carbonate water

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruit (varies)
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl should be very low, if evident

source: CraftBeer.com


English-Style Mild

Style Family: Brown Ales

Malt and caramel are part of the flavor and aroma profile, while licorice and roast malt tones may sometimes contribute as well. Hop bitterness is very low to low. U.S. brewers are known to make lighter-colored versions as well as the more common “dark mild.” These beers are very low in alcohol, yet often are still medium-bodied due to increased dextrin malts.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.030 - 1.036
  • FG1.004 - 1.008
  • ABV3.4% - 4.4%
  • IBU10 - 24
  • BU:GU0.33 - 0.67
  • SRM17 - 34
  • CO2 Volumes1 - 1.5
  • Apparent Attenuation78 - 87

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable
  • ColorReddish Brown to Very Dark
  • ClarityClear to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMild Cheddar
  • EntréeMushrooms and Wild Game
  • DessertDark Fruit Tart
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor is low to very low
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorCaramel, Chocolate, Coffee, Licorice, Raisin, Molasses. Malt flavors dominate the flavor profile
  • Malt IngredientsBritish Pale Ale, Crystal, Pale Chocolate, Black Patent
  • Other ingredientsSugar (occasionally)
  • Palate BodySoft to Mouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester flavors, if present, are very low to medium-low
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiactyl at low levels is common

source: CraftBeer.com


American IPA

Style Family: India Pale Ales

Characterized by floral, fruity, citrus-like, piney or resinous American-variety hop character, this style is all about hop flavor, aroma and bitterness. This has been the most-entered category at the Great American Beer Festival for more than a decade, and is the top-selling craft beer style in supermarkets and liquor stores across the U.S.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.060 - 1.075
  • FG1.012 - 1.018
  • ABV6.3% - 7.6%
  • IBU50 - 70
  • BU:GU0.83 - 0.93
  • SRM6 - 14
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation76 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessDry-hopping is common
  • ColorGold to Copper, Red/Brown
  • ClarityClear to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseBlue Cheeses
  • EntréeSpicy Tuna Roll
  • DessertPersimmon Rice Pudding
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is high and hop flavor is strong both with floral qualities and citrus-like, piney, resinous or sulfur-like American-variety hop character. Hop bitterness is medium-high to very high
  • Hop IngredientsCentennial, Simcoe, Amarillo
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorBiscuit, Bready, Caramel
  • Malt IngredientsAmerican Two-Row
  • Palate BodySoft to Sticky
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterHigh mineral content

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersCitrus, Tropical Fruit, Pine

source: CraftBeer.com


English-Style IPA

Style Family: India Pale Ales

Steeped in lore (and extra hops), the IPA is a stronger version of a pale ale. Characterized by stiff English-style hop character (earthy, floral) and increased alcohol content. English yeast lends a fruity flavor and aroma. Different from its American counterpart, this style strikes a balance between malt and hops for a more rounded flavor. There is also a lot of mythology surrounding the creation of this style, which is still debated today.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.050 - 1.064
  • FG1.012 - 1.018
  • ABV5.1% - 7.1%
  • IBU35 - 63
  • BU:GU0.70 - 0.98
  • SRM6 - 14
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation72 - 76

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Noticeable
  • ColorGold to Copper
  • ClarityClear to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Cheddar
  • EntréeFettuccine Alfredo
  • DessertGinger Spice Cake
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is medium to high, often flowery. Hop flavor and bitterness are medium to high. Earthy and herbal English-variety hop character is perceived, but may be a result of the skillful use of hops of other national origins
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorBready, Biscuit, Toast, Caramel, Toffee
  • Malt IngredientsBritish Pale Ale, Crystal, Biscuit
  • Palate BodyModerate
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterHigh mineral content. May include subtle sulfur content

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity ester aromas are moderate to very strong
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl can be absent or may be perceived at very low levels

source: CraftBeer.com


Imperial India Pale Ale

Style Family: India Pale Ales

High hop bitterness, flavor and aroma. Hop character is fresh and evident from utilization of any variety of hops. Alcohol content is medium-high to high and notably evident with a medium-high to full body. The intention of this style is to exhibit the fresh and evident character of hops.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.075 - 1.100
  • FG1.012 - 1.020
  • ABV7.6% - 10.6%
  • IBU65 - 100
  • BU:GU0.87 - 1.00
  • SRM5 - 16
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation80 - 84

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessDry-hopping is common
  • ColorGold to Light Brown
  • ClarityClear to Hazy
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseRich Cheeses
  • EntréeBone-In Pork Chops, Miso Salmon
  • DessertCarrot Cake
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor and aroma are very high, should be fresh and lively and should not be harsh in quality, deriving from any variety of hops. Hop bitterness is very high but not harsh
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt character is medium to high
  • Malt IngredientsAmerican Two-Row, Crystal, Malted Wheat
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishLong
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style.
  • EstersFruity ester aroma and flavor are high.

source: CraftBeer.com


American-Style Wheat Wine Ale

Style Family: Wheat Beers

Part of the “strong ale” category, this ale is not derived from grapes as its name might suggest. Made with at least 50 percent wheat malt, this full-bodied beer features bready and candy flavors, and finishes with a great deal of malty sweetness. These beers may be oak-aged and sometimes have small amounts of darker malts added.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.088 - 1.120
  • FG1.024 - 1.032
  • ABV8.5% - 12.2%
  • IBU45 - 85
  • BU:GU0.51 - 0.71
  • SRM5 - 15
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 73

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable to Harsh
  • ColorGold to Light Brown
  • ClaritySlight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin to Interrupted
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAsiago
  • EntréeSmoked Trout
  • DessertPeach Sorbet
  • GlassSnifter
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are low to medium. Hop bitterness is medium to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorBready, wheat, honey-like and/or caramel malt aromas are often present
  • Malt IngredientsAt least 50 percent Malted Wheat
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester aroma is often high and counterbalanced with complex alcohol character

source: CraftBeer.com


American Wheat

Style Family: Wheat Beers

Color is pale to light amber. This beer can be made using either ale or lager yeast. Generally brewed with at least 30 percent malted wheat. These beers are typically served with the yeast in the bottle, and pour cloudy. Traditionally more hoppy than a German hefeweizen, American wheat beer differs in that it should not offer flavors of banana or clove. It is a refreshing summer style. Darker versions of this style also exist but are not as common.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.036 - 1.056
  • FG1.004 - 1.018
  • ABV3.5% - 5.6%
  • IBU10 - 35
  • BU:GU0.28 - 0.62
  • SRM2 - 10
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation68 - 89

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessBrewed with wheat malt
  • ColorStraw to Light Amber
  • ClarityBrilliant to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseChèvre
  • EntréeSalads, Seafood
  • DessertFruit Desserts
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma, flavor and bitterness are low to medium
  • Hop IngredientsWillamette, Centennial
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorGrainy Wheat
  • Malt IngredientsMalted Wheat, American Two-Row
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present
  • EstersCan be present
  • Fermentation ByproductsVery low levels of diacetyl may be acceptable

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Witbier

Style Family: Wheat Beers

Belgian-style wits are brewed using unmalted wheat, sometimes oats and malted barley. Witbiers are spiced with coriander and orange peel. A style that dates back hundreds of years, it fell into relative obscurity until it was revived by Belgian brewer Pierre Celis in the 1960s. This style is currently enjoying a renaissance, especially in the American market. “Wit” means “white.”

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.050
  • FG1.006 - 1.010
  • ABV4.8% - 5.6%
  • IBU10 - 17
  • BU:GU0.23 - 0.34
  • SRM2 - 4
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation80 - 86

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessOften bottle-conditioned
  • ColorStraw to Pale
  • ClarityHazy
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMascarpone
  • EntréeMoules and Frites
  • DessertPanna Cotta
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor and aroma are not perceived to low. Hop bitterness is low, achieved traditionally by the use of noble-type hops
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt aroma and flavor are very low to low
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Flaked Wheat, Unmalted Wheat, and occasionally oats and malted barley
  • Other ingredientsOrange Peel, Coriander Seed
  • Palate BodyDrying
  • Palate CarbonationHigh
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsSpicy, Pepper
  • EstersOrange, Citrus
  • Fermentation ByproductsUnfiltered starch and yeast haze should be part of the appearance. Wits are traditionally bottle-conditioned and served cloudy

source: CraftBeer.com


Berliner-Style Weisse

Style Family: Wheat Beers

Low in alcohol and refreshingly tart, and often served with a flavored syrup like Woodruff or raspberry, this German-style wheat ale presents a harmony between yeast and lactic acid. These beers are very pale in color, and may be cloudy as they are often unfiltered. Hops are not a feature of this style, but these beers often do showcase esters. Traditional versions often showcase Brettanomyces yeast. Growing in popularity in the U.S., where many brewers are now adding traditional and exotic fruits to the recipe, resulting in flavorful finishes with striking, colorful hues. These beers are incredible when pairing. Bitterness, alcohol and residual sugar are very low, allowing the beer’s acidity, white bread and graham cracker malt flavors to shine. Carbonation is very high, adding to the refreshment factor this style delivers. Many examples of this style contain no hops and thus no bitterness at all.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.028 - 1.032
  • FG1.004 - 1.006
  • ABV2.8% - 3.4%
  • IBU3 - 6
  • BU:GU0.11 - 0.19
  • SRM2 - 4
  • CO2 Volumes3.5 - 4
  • Apparent Attenuation81 - 86

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessHops often not boiled and instead added to a decoction mash. Acidity may be introduced from a sour mash, lactic acid additions or acidulated malt
  • ColorStraw to Pale
  • ClarityClear to Hazy
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy to Rocky
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseHavarti
  • EntréeAged Ham on Pretzel Bread
  • DessertCheesecake with Raspberries
  • GlassGoblet
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived. Hop bitterness is not perceived to very low
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorNot Perceived
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Malted Wheat
  • Palate BodyDrying
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester flavors will be evident
  • MicroorganismsLactobacillus

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Dunkelweizen

Style Family: Wheat Beers

Could be considered a cross between a German-style dunkel and a hefeweizen. Distinguished by its sweet maltiness and chocolate-like character, it can also have banana and clove (and occasionally vanilla or bubblegum) esters from weizen ale yeast.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.048 - 1.056
  • FG1.008 - 1.016
  • ABV4.8% - 5.4%
  • IBU10 - 15
  • BU:GU0.21 - 0.27
  • SRM10 - 25
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 - 3
  • Apparent Attenuation71 - 83

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessA decoction mash is commonly used
  • ColorCopper-Brown to Very Dark
  • ClaritySlight Haze to Hazy
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseGouda
  • EntréeRoasted Chicken
  • DessertBanana Cream Pie
  • GlassVase
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived. Hop bitterness is low
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorBready or grainy, with a distinct sweet maltiness and a chocolate-like character from roasted malt
  • Malt IngredientsAt least 50 percent Malted Wheat, plus Munich, Special "B", Crystal, Carafa Special II
  • Palate BodyModerate to Mouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeWeizen Ale
  • PhenolsThe phenolic flavors of Dunkel Weissbier should be evident but subdued
  • EstersThe ester flavors of Dunkel Weissbier should be evident but subdued

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Hefeweizen

Style Family: Wheat Beers

German-style hefeweizens are straw to amber in color and made with at least 50 percent malted wheat. The aroma and flavor of a weissbier comes largely from the yeast and is decidedly fruity (banana) and phenolic (clove). “Weizen” means “wheat” and “hefe” means “yeast.” There are multiple variations to this style. Filtered versions are known as “Kristal Weizen” and darker versions are referred to as “Dunkels,” with a stronger, bock-like version called “Weizenbock.” This is commonly a very highly carbonated style with a long-lasting collar of foam.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.047 - 1.056
  • FG1.008 - 1.016
  • ABV4.9% - 5.6%
  • IBU10 - 15
  • BU:GU0.21 - 0.27
  • SRM3 - 9
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 - 3
  • Apparent Attenuation71 - 83

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessA decoction mash is sometimes used
  • ColorStraw to Amber
  • ClarityHazy
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseChèvre
  • EntréeSeafood
  • DessertKey Lime Pie
  • GlassVase
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor is not perceived to very low. Hop bitterness is very low
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt sweetness is very low to medium-low
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Malted Wheat
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationHigh
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeWeizen Ale
  • PhenolsClove
  • EstersBanana

source: CraftBeer.com


American Barley Wine

Style Family: Strong Ales

These ales range from amber to deep red/copper-garnet in color. A caramel and/or toffee aroma and flavor are often part of the malt character along with high residual malty sweetness. Complexity of alcohols is evident. Fruity-ester character is often high. As with many American versions of a style, this barley wine ale is typically more hop-forward and bitter than its U.K. counterpart. Low levels of age-induced oxidation can harmonize with other flavors and enhance the overall experience. Sometimes sold as vintage releases.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.090 - 1.120
  • FG1.024 - 1.028
  • ABV8.5% - 12.2%
  • IBU60 - 100
  • BU:GU0.67 - 0.83
  • SRM11 - 18
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 77

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable to Hot
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessDry-hopping and aging are common
  • ColorAmber to Deep Red or Copper-Garnet
  • ClarityClear to Brilliant
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseStrong Blue Cheeses
  • EntréeBeef Cheek
  • DessertRich Desserts
  • GlassSnifter
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are medium to very high. Hop bitterness is high. American-type hops are often used, but not necessary for this style
  • Hop IngredientsMagnum, Chinook, Centennial, Amarillo
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorCaramel, Toffee, Bready, Sweet
  • Malt IngredientsPale, Crystal, Pale Chocolate, Special "B"
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating to Sticky
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester flavors are often high
  • Fermentation ByproductsVery low levels of diacetyl may be acceptable

source: CraftBeer.com


American Imperial Red Ale

Style Family: Strong Ales

The use of American hops in this ale lends to the perception of medium hop bitterness, flavor and aroma. Coupled with a solid malt profile, this should be a beer with balance between hop bitterness and malt sweetness. Some breweries will choose to bottle-condition this style, leading to possible fruity esters and some haze in their appearance. This is another example of modern American brewers taking an established style and boosting the flavor. California brewers are credited with creating this innovative style.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.080 - 1.100
  • FG1.020 - 1.028
  • ABV8%-10.6%
  • IBU55 - 85
  • BU:GU0.69 - 0.85
  • SRM10 - 17
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation72 - 75

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessDry-hopping is common
  • ColorDeep Amber to Dark Copper or Reddish Brown
  • ClaritySlight Haze to Clear. Unfiltered versions: Hazy to Very Cloudy
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor to Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin to Fluffy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMozzarella
  • EntréeCorned Beef Hash
  • DessertToffee Pudding
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma, flavor and bitterness are high but balanced, arising from any variety of hops
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMedium to high caramel malt character is present
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsVaries
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersMedium.

source: CraftBeer.com


British-Style Barley Wine Ale

Style Family: Strong Ales

A strong ale that leans heavily on malt characteristics for flavor. With a wide color range and typically high in alcohol, this is a style that is often aged and will evolve well over time. As they advance in age, these beers develop oxidative characteristics including honey and toffee flavors and aromas, darker colors, lessened bitterness and more.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.085 - 1.120
  • FG1.024 - 1.028
  • ABV8.5% - 12.0%
  • IBU40 - 60
  • BU:GU0.47 - 0.50
  • SRM14 - 22
  • CO2 Volumes1.5 - 2
  • Apparent Attenuation72 - 77

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable to Hot
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessAging is common
  • ColorTawny Copper to Deep Red or Copper-Garnet
  • ClarityBrilliant to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin to Interrupted
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseEnglish Stilton
  • EntréeMoroccan Duck
  • DessertDark Chocolate
  • GlassSnifter
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor and aroma are very low to medium. Hop bitterness is low to medium. English-type hops are often used, but not necessary for this style
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings, Horizon
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorNutty, Caramel, Biscuit
  • Malt IngredientsEnglish Pale, CaraMunich, Crystal
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester characters are often high and balanced with the high alcohol content
  • Fermentation ByproductsLow levels of diacetyl may be acceptable

source: CraftBeer.com


English-Style Old Ale

Style Family: Strong Ales

A distinctive quality of these ales is that their yeast undergoes an aging process (often for years) in bulk storage or through bottle conditioning, which contributes to a rich, wine-like and often sweet oxidation character. Old ales are copper-red to very dark in color. Complex estery character may emerge.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.058 - 1.088
  • FG1.014 - 1.030
  • ABV6.3% - 9.1%
  • IBU30 - 65
  • BU:GU0.52 - 0.74
  • SRM12 - 30
  • CO2 Volumes2 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation66 - 76

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable to Hot
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessTypically mashed at higher temperatures to reduce attenuation. Wood-aged notes such as vanillin are acceptable.
  • ColorCopper-Red to Very Dark
  • ClarityOpaque
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor to Moderate
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin to Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseDouble Gloucester
  • EntréeRoast Beef and Lamb
  • DessertSpiced Plum Walnut Tart
  • GlassSnifter
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived to medium. Hop bitterness is minimal but evident.
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorA malty and sometimes caramel-like sweetness may be evident.
  • Malt IngredientsPale, Chocolate, Black Patent
  • Other ingredientsMolasses, Treacle, Invert Sugar, Dark Sugar
  • Palate BodyModerate to Mouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishLong
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle, Brettanomyces possible
  • PhenolsNot common to style.
  • EstersFruit (Varies)
  • MicroorganismsLactobacillus possible. Horsey, goaty, leathery and phenolic character evolved from Brettanomyces organisms and acidity may be present but should be at low levels and balanced with other flavors.
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl is acceptable at very low levels.

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Blonde Ale

Style Family: Belgian Styles

Typically easy-drinking, with a low but pleasing hop bitterness. This is a light- to medium-bodied ale, with a low malt aroma that has a spiced and sometimes fruity-ester character. Sugar is sometimes added to lighten the perceived body. This style is medium in sweetness and not as bitter as Belgian-style tripels or golden strong ales. It is usually brilliantly clear. The overall impression is balance between light sweetness, spice and low to medium fruity ester flavors.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.054 - 1.068
  • FG1.008 - 1.015
  • ABV6.3% - 7.9%
  • IBU15 - 30
  • BU:GU0.28 - 0.44
  • SRM4 - 7
  • CO2 Volumes3 - 4
  • Apparent Attenuation78 - 85

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • ColorPale to Light Amber
  • ClarityClear to Brilliant
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseBrie
  • EntréeSweet and Sour Chicken
  • DessertAngel Food Cake
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor and aroma are not perceived to low. Hop bitterness is very low to low
  • Hop IngredientsHallertau
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt aroma and flavor are low
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Malted Wheat, Aromatic
  • Other ingredientsBelgian Candi Sugar (occasionally)
  • Palate BodySoft to Moderate
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsSpicy
  • EstersLow to medium fruity-ester aromas may be present and balanced with light malt and spice aromas

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Dubbel

Style Family: Belgian Styles

Belgian-style dubbels range from brown to very dark in color. They have a malty sweetness and can have cocoa and caramel aromas and flavors. Hop bitterness is medium-low to medium. Yeast-generated fruity esters (especially banana) can be apparent. Often bottle-conditioned, a slight yeast haze and flavor may be evident. “Dubbel” meaning “double,” this beer is still not so big in intensity as to surpass the Belgian-style quadrupel that is often considered its sibling.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.060 - 1.075
  • FG1.012 - 1.016
  • ABV6.3% - 7.6%
  • IBU20 - 35
  • BU:GU0.33 - 0.40
  • SRM16 - 36
  • CO2 Volumes3 - 4
  • Apparent Attenuation79 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessSometimes extended boiling time results in kettle caramelization. Usually bottle conditioned
  • ColorBrown to Very Dark
  • ClarityClear to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseWashed-Rind Cheeses
  • EntréeApple-Smoked Sausage
  • DessertMilk Chocolate
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived to low. Hop bitterness is medium-low to medium
  • Hop IngredientsTettnang
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorChocolate, Caramel, Toast
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, CaraMunich, Special "B"
  • Other ingredientsBelgian Candi Sugar, Other Sugars
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsSpicy, Pepper, Rose-like, Perfumy
  • EstersFruit (Banana)
  • Fermentation ByproductsSlight yeast haze is often evident when bottle-conditioned

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Golden Strong Ale

Style Family: Belgian Styles

These beers are fruity, complex and often on the higher end of the ABV spectrum, yet are approachable to many different palates. Look for a characteristic spiciness from Belgian yeast and a highly attenuated dry finish. This style is traditionally drier and lighter in color than a Belgian-style tripel.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.064 - 1.096
  • FG1.008 - 1.024
  • ABV7.1% - 11.2%
  • IBU20 - 50
  • BU:GU0.31 - 0.52
  • SRM3.5 - 10
  • CO2 Volumes4 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation75 - 88

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessBottle-conditioned
  • ColorPale to Copper
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Rocky
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseTriple Creme
  • EntréeBeer Battered Fried Shrimp
  • DessertBaklava
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are medium-low to medium-high. Hop bitterness is medium-low to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsCzech Saaz
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorThese beers can be malty in overall impression, or dry and highly attenuated
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner
  • Other ingredientsCane Sugar. Herbs and spices are sometimes used to delicately flavor these strong ales
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsSpicy, Pepper
  • EstersFruit (Pear, Orange, Apple)
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl should be very low, if evident

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Pale Ale

Style Family: Belgian Styles

These pale ales are gold to copper in color and can have caramel or toasted malt flavor. The style is characterized by low but noticeable hop bitterness, flavor and aroma. These beers were inspired by British pale ales. They are very sessionable.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.054
  • FG1.008 - 1.014
  • ABV4.1% - 6.3%
  • IBU20 - 30
  • BU:GU0.45 - 0.56
  • SRM6 - 12
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation74 - 82

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • ColorGold to Copper
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor to Moderate
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Rocky
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseTaleggio
  • EntréeTempura Fried Fish and Chips
  • DessertSavory Bread Pudding
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are low but noticeable; noble-type hops are commonly used. Hop bitterness is low but noticeable
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorCaramel, Toast
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, CaraMunich, Biscuit
  • Other ingredientsBelgian Candi Sugar (occasionally)
  • Palate BodyModerate
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature40-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsSpicy
  • EstersFruit (Pear, Orange)

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Quadrupel

Style Family: Belgian Styles

These beers are amber to dark brown in color. Caramel, dark sugar and malty sweet flavors dominate, with medium-low to medium-high hop bitterness. Quads have a relatively light body compared to their alcoholic strength. If aged, oxidative qualities should be mild and not distracting. Sometimes referred to as Belgian strong dark.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.084 - 1.120
  • FG1.014 - 1.020
  • ABV9.1% - 14.2%
  • IBU25 - 50
  • BU:GU0.30 - 0.42
  • SRM8 - 20
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 - 3
  • Apparent Attenuation83 - 83

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable to Hot
  • ColorAmber to Dark Brown
  • ClaritySlight Haze
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Gouda
  • EntréeRoasted Duck
  • DessertBread Pudding
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived to very low. Hop bitterness is low to medium-low
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorCaramel, dark sugar and malty sweet flavors and aromas can be intense, not cloying, while complementing fruitiness
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsClove-like phenolic flavor and aroma should not be evident
  • EstersComplex fruity flavors reminiscent of raisins, dates, figs, grapes and/or plums emerge, often accompanied with a hint of wine-like character. Perception of alcohol can be extreme

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Saison

Style Family: Belgian Styles

Beers in this category are gold to light amber in color. Often bottle-conditioned, with some yeast character and high carbonation. Belgian-style saison may have Brettanomyces or lactic character, and fruity, horsey, goaty and/or leather-like aromas and flavors. Specialty ingredients, including spices, may contribute a unique and signature character. Commonly called “farmhouse ales” and originating as summertime beers in Belgium, these are not just warm-weather treats. U.S. craft brewers brew them year-round and have taken to adding a variety of additional ingredients.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.040 - 1.080
  • FG1.010 - 1.014
  • ABV4.4% - 8.4%
  • IBU20 - 38
  • BU:GU0.50 - 0.50
  • SRM4 - 14
  • CO2 Volumes3 - 3.5
  • Apparent Attenuation83 - 75

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessOften bottle-conditioned, sometimes dry-hopped and fermented at higher temperatures
  • ColorPale to Light Brown
  • ClaritySlight Haze
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Rocky
  • Carbonation (Visual)Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseBrie
  • EntréeSeafood (Mussels)
  • DessertLemon Ginger Sorbet
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is low to medium. Hop bitterness is medium to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsNoble, Styrian, East Kent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt flavor is low but provides foundation for the overall balance
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Munich, Malted Wheat
  • Other ingredientsSimple Sugar, Honey, Spelt. Specialty ingredients (spices, herbs, flowers, fruits, vegetables, fermentable sugars and carbohydrates, special yeasts of all types, wood aging, etc.) may contribute unique and signature character
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationHigh
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterHigh sulfate content

Yeast

  • TypeAle, Brettanomyces possible
  • PhenolsPepper
  • EstersFruit (Orange, Lemon)
  • MicroorganismsLactobacillus possible
  • Fermentation ByproductsA small amount of sour or acidic flavor is acceptable when in balance with other components. These beers are often bottle-conditioned, with some yeast character and high carbonation

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Tripel

Style Family: Belgian Styles

Complex, sometimes mild spicy flavor characterizes this style. Yeast-driven complexity is common. Tripels are often on the higher end of the ABV spectrum, yet are approachable to many different palates. These beers are commonly bottle-conditioned and finish dry. Tripels are similar to Belgian-style golden strong ales, but are generally darker and have a more noticeable malt sweetness.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.070 - 1.092
  • FG1.008 - 1.018
  • ABV7.1% - 10.1%
  • IBU20 - 45
  • BU:GU0.29 - 0.49
  • SRM4 - 9
  • CO2 Volumes3 - 4
  • Apparent Attenuation80 - 89

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • ColorPale to Light Amber
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Rocky
  • Carbonation (Visual)Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseTriple Creme
  • EntréeRoasted Turkey
  • DessertCaramelized Banana Creme Brulee
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived to low. Hop bitterness is medium to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsTetnang, Czech Saaz
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorLow sweetness from very pale malts is present
  • Malt IngredientsBelgian Pilsner
  • Other ingredientsBrewing Sugar (occasionally)
  • Palate BodySoft to Mouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationHigh
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterSoft Water

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsComplex, sometimes mild spicy flavor. Clove-like phenolic flavor may be evident at very low levels
  • EstersFruit (Orange, Banana)
  • Fermentation ByproductsTraditional tripels are bottle-conditioned and may exhibit slight yeast haze, but the yeast should not be intentionally roused

source: CraftBeer.com


American Cream Ale

Style Family: Hybrid Beers

This is a mild, pale, light-bodied ale, made using a warm fermentation (top or bottom fermenting yeast) and cold lagering. Despite being called an ale, when being judged in competitions it is acceptable for brewers to use lager yeast.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.052
  • FG1.004 - 1.010
  • ABV4.3% - 5.7%
  • IBU10 - 22
  • BU:GU0.23 - 0.42
  • SRM2 - 5
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation81 - 91

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessSometimes krausened for carbonation
  • ColorStraw to Gold
  • ClarityBrilliant
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor to Moderate
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin to Interrupted
  • Carbonation (Visual)Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMonterey Jack
  • EntréeSalads, Mild Shellfish
  • DessertLemon Custard Tart
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is usually absent, and hop flavor is very low to low. Hop bitterness is very low to low
  • Hop IngredientsLiberty
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorGrainy
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner
  • Other ingredientsSimple Sugar, Maize
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationHigh
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersNot common to style.
  • Fermentation ByproductsFermentation-derived sulfur character and/or DMS flavor should be extremely low or absent from this style of beer. Diacetyl flavor should not be perceived

source: CraftBeer.com


French-Style Biere de Garde

Style Family: Hybrid Beers

The name translates as “beer for keeping.” This style is popping up more and more from U.S. producers. Blond, amber and brown versions exist. Bier de garde examples are light amber to chestnut brown or red in color. This style is characterized by a toasted malt aroma and slight malt sweetness. Flavor of alcohol is evident. Often bottle-conditioned, with some yeast character.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.060 - 1.080
  • FG1.012 - 1.024
  • ABV4.4% - 8.0%
  • IBU20 - 30
  • BU:GU0.33 - 0.38
  • SRM7 - 16
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 - 3
  • Apparent Attenuation70 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • ColorLight Amber to Chestnut Brown or Red
  • ClarityClear to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginFrance
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy to Rocky
  • Carbonation (Visual)Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseSoft Ripened Cheeses
  • EntréeRoasted Lamb with Mint
  • DessertPecan Pie
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are low to medium, from noble-type hops. Hop bitterness is low to medium
  • Hop IngredientsFuggle
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorToast, Caramel, Toffee
  • Malt IngredientsCaraVienna, Pilsner, Munich, Black Patent
  • Other ingredientsSugar (occasionally)
  • Palate BodySoft to Mouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationHigh
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterSoft Water

Yeast

  • TypeAle, Brettanomyces possible
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester flavors can be low to medium in intensity
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl flavor should not be perceived. May have Brettanomyces yeast-derived aromas that are slightly acidic, fruity, horsey, goaty and/or leather-like. Earthy, cellar-like, corky and/or musty aromas are acceptable

source: CraftBeer.com


California Common

Style Family: Hybrid Beers

This beer style is brewed with lager yeast but fermented at ale fermentation temperatures. There is a noticeable degree of toasted malt and/or caramel-like malt character in flavor and often in aroma. Often referred to as “steam beer” and made famous by San Francisco’s Anchor Brewing Company. Seek out woody and mint flavor from the Northern Brewer hops.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.045 - 1.056
  • FG1.010 - 1.018
  • ABV4.6% - 5.7%
  • IBU35 - 45
  • BU:GU0.78 - 0.80
  • SRM8 - 15
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 - 3
  • Apparent Attenuation68 - 78

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessCool ale fermentation temperatures used to ferment this lager beer
  • ColorLight Amber to Medium Amber
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Moderate
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseFeta
  • EntréePork Loin
  • DessertBread Pudding
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor is low to medium-low and may present as Woody, Rustic, or Minty. Hop bitterness is medium to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsNorthern Brewer
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorNoticeable caramel-type malt flavor should be present
  • Malt IngredientsPale, Munich, Crystal, Victory, Pale Chocolate
  • Palate BodyDrying
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester aromas, if present, should be low to medium-low

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Brown/Altbier

Style Family: Hybrid Beers

Originally from the Düsseldorf area of Germany, these ales strike a balance between hop and malt flavors and aromas, but can have low fruity esters and some peppery and floral hop aromas. Before Germany had lager beer, it had ales. Alt, meaning “old,” pays homage to one rebel region in Germany which did not lean into lagering. U.S. producers celebrate the ale revolution beautifully with this top-fermented German beer style.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.052
  • FG1.008 - 1.014
  • ABV4.6% - 5.6%
  • IBU25 - 52
  • BU:GU0.57 - 1.00
  • SRM11 - 19
  • CO2 Volumes1.5 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 82

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessA decoction mash is sometimes used. Cooler ale fermentation and lagering is common
  • ColorCopper to Dark Brown
  • ClarityBrilliant
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseEmmental
  • EntréeGrilled Salmon
  • DessertApple Pie
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor is low to medium. Hop bitterness is medium to very high (although the 25 to 35 IBU range is more normal for the majority of Altbiers from Düsseldorf)
  • Hop IngredientsSpalt, Magnum, Tettnang
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorSweet malt character that may have a rich, biscuity, and/or light caramel flavor
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Munich, CaraMunich, Carafa Special II, Aromatic
  • Other ingredientsWheat (occasionally)
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterModerate carbonate water

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester flavors, if present, can be low

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Kolsch

Style Family: Hybrid Beers

Light in color and malt character, this style’s fermentation process yields a light vinous character which is accompanied by a slightly dry, crisp finish. Ale yeast is used for fermentation, though lager yeast is sometimes used in the bottle or final cold-conditioning process.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.042 - 1.048
  • FG1.006 - 1.010
  • ABV4.8% - 5.3%
  • IBU18 - 28
  • BU:GU0.43 - 0.58
  • SRM3 - 6
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation79 - 86

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessCommonly conditioned at colder temperatures (known as 'lagering')
  • ColorStraw to Gold
  • ClarityBrilliant
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseNutty Cheeses
  • EntréeBratwurst
  • DessertLight Apricot Cake
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor is low and, if evident, should express noble hop character. Hop bitterness is medium
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt character is a very low to low with a soft sweetness
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Vienna
  • Other ingredientsWheat (occasionally)
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersLight pear, apple or Riesling wine-like fruitiness may be apparent
  • Fermentation ByproductsLow-level sulfur notes are acceptable

source: CraftBeer.com


Irish-Style Red

Style Family: Hybrid Beers

This is a balanced beer that uses a moderate amount of kilned malts and roasted barley to give the color for which it’s named. With a medium hop characteristic on the palate, this typically amber-colored beer is brewed as a lager or ale and can have a medium candy-like caramel malt sweetness. This style may contain adjuncts such as corn, rice and sugar, which help dry out the finish and lessen the body. It also often contains roasted barley, lending low roasted notes, darker color and possibly creating a tan collar of foam. With notes of caramel, toffee and sometimes low-level diacetyl (butter), think of this beer style as a cousin to lightly-toasted and buttered bread.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.040 - 1.048
  • FG1.010 - 1.014
  • ABV4.1% - 4.6%
  • IBU20 - 28
  • BU:GU0.50 - 0.58
  • SRM11 - 18
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation71 - 75

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • ColorCopper-Red to Reddish Brown
  • ClarityClear to Hazy
  • Country of OriginIreland
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor to Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin to Interrupted
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseCheddar
  • EntréeRoasted Vegetables
  • DessertPoached Pears
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is not perceived or low. Hop flavor and bitterness are medium
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorLow to medium candy-like caramel malt sweetness is present. May have a subtle degree of roasted barley or roasted malt character and complexity
  • Malt IngredientsPale, Crystal, Roasted Barley
  • Other ingredientsMay contain corn, rice or sugar adjuncts
  • Palate BodySoft to Moderate
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersLow levels of fruity-ester flavor are acceptable
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl should be absent or at very low levels

source: CraftBeer.com


American Imperial Porter

Style Family: Porters

Definitively American, these porters should have no roasted barley flavors or strong burnt/black malt character. Medium caramel and cocoa-like sweetness is present, with complementing hop character and malt-derived sweetness.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.080 - 1.100
  • FG1.020 - 1.030
  • ABV7.0% - 12.0%
  • IBU35 - 50
  • BU:GU0.44 - 0.50
  • SRM40+
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation70 - 75

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable
  • ColorBlack
  • ClarityOpaque
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseSmoked Gouda
  • EntréeChicken Mole Enchiladas
  • DessertBlondie Butterscotch Brownies
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are low to medium-high. Hop bitterness is medium-low to medium
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorNo roasted barley or strong burnt/black malt character should be perceived. Medium malt, caramel and cocoa-like sweetness is present
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersAle-like fruity ester flavors should be evident but not overpowering, complementing hop character and malt-derived sweetness
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl should be absent

source: CraftBeer.com


Baltic-Style Porter

Style Family: Porters

A smooth, cold-fermented and cold-lagered beer brewed with lager yeast. Because of its alcoholic strength, it may include very low to low complex alcohol flavors and/or lager fruitiness such as berries, grapes and plums (but not banana; ale-like fruitiness from warm-temperature fermentation is not appropriate). This style has the malt flavors of a brown porter and the roast of a schwarzbier, but is bigger in alcohol and body.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.072 - 1.092
  • FG1.016 - 1.022
  • ABV7.6% - 9.3%
  • IBU35 - 40
  • BU:GU0.47 - 0.49
  • SRM40+
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation76 - 78

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessBrewed with lager yeast and cold-fermented
  • ColorVery Deep Ruby or Garnet to Black
  • ClarityClear to Opaque
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Gouda
  • EntréePrime Rib
  • DessertDeconstructed S'mores
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are very low. Hop bitterness is low to medium-low
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorDistinctive malt aromas of caramelized sugars, licorice, and chocolate-like notes of roasted malts and dark sugars are present. Roasted dark malts sometimes contribute a coffee-like roasted barley aroma. Low smoky aroma from malt may be evident. Debittered roasted malts are best used for this style
  • Malt IngredientsMunich, Vienna, Pilsner, Crystal, Special "B", Carafa Special II, Chocolate
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersMay include very low to low complex alcohol flavors and/or lager fruitiness such as berries, grapes, plums, but not banana; ale-like fruitiness from warm temperature fermentation is not appropriate
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl and DMS flavors should not be apparent

source: CraftBeer.com


English-Style Brown Porter

Style Family: Porters

Brown porters have no roasted barley or strong burnt/black malt character. Low to medium malt sweetness, caramel and chocolate is acceptable. Hop bitterness is medium. Softer, sweeter and more caramel-like than a robust porter, with less alcohol and body. Porters are the precursor style to stouts.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.040 - 1.050
  • FG1.006 - 1.014
  • ABV4.4% - 6.0%
  • IBU20 - 30
  • BU:GU0.50 - 0.60
  • SRM30 - 35
  • CO2 Volumes1.5 - 2
  • Apparent Attenuation72 - 85

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • ColorDark Brown (may have red tint) to Very Dark
  • ClarityOpaque
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Moderate
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseGruyere
  • EntréeRoasted or Grilled Meats
  • DessertChocolate Peanut Butter Cookies
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived to medium. Hop bitterness is medium
  • Hop IngredientsFuggles
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorNutty, Chocolate, Caramel, Bready, Toffee
  • Malt IngredientsBritish Pale Ale, Brown, Crystal, Chocolate
  • Other ingredientsMay contain additional sugar sources
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterModerate carbonate water

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity esters may be present

source: CraftBeer.com


Robust Porter

Style Family: Porters

Often features more bitter and roasted malt flavor than a brown porter, but not quite as much as a stout. Robust porters have a roast malt flavor, often reminiscent of cocoa, but no roast barley flavor. Their caramel and malty sweetness is in harmony with the sharp bitterness of black malt. Hop bitterness is evident. With U.S. craft brewers doing so much experimentation in beer styles and ingredients, the lines between certain stouts and porters are often blurred. Yet many deliberate examples of these styles do exist. Diacetyl is acceptable at very low levels.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.045 - 1.060
  • FG1.008 - 1.016
  • ABV5.1% - 6.6%
  • IBU25 - 40
  • BU:GU0.56 - 0.67
  • SRM30+
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 82

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • ColorVery Dark to Black
  • ClarityOpaque
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseGruyere
  • EntréeRoasted or Grilled Meats
  • DessertChocolate Peanut Butter Cookies
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are very low to medium. Hop bitterness is medium to high
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings, Fuggles
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorGrainy, Bready, Toffee, Caramel, Chocolate, Coffee. Caramel and other malty sweetness is in harmony with the sharp bitterness of black malt, without a highly burnt/charcoal flavor
  • Malt IngredientsMunich, Crystal, Chocolate, Black Patent
  • Other ingredientsMay contain roasted barley
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity esters should be evident, balanced with all other characters
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl is acceptable at very low levels

source: CraftBeer.com


Smoke Porter

Style Family: Porters

Typically the base for this style is a robust porter that is given smoky depth thanks to wood-smoked malt. Traditionally, brewers will cite the specific wood used to smoke the malt, and different woods will lend different flavors to the finished product. Smoke flavors dissipate over time.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.050 - 1.065
  • FG1.010 - 1.018
  • ABV5.1% - 8.9%
  • IBU20 - 40
  • BU:GU0.40 - 0.62
  • SRM20+
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent Attenuation72 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessUse of smoked malts is common
  • ColorDark Brown to Black
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseRed Dragon Cheddar
  • EntréeGrilled Sausage
  • DessertS'mores
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived to medium. Hop bitterness is medium to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings, Willamette
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorBlack malt character can be perceived in some porters, while others may be absent of strong roasted character. Medium to high malt sweetness, caramel and chocolate are acceptable
  • Malt IngredientsCrystal, Chocolate, Black Patent
  • Other ingredientsCommon woods used by U.S. craft brewers to smoke a variety of malts: Apple, Alder, Beech, Cherry, Hickory, Mesquite, Oak
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester aroma is acceptable. A mild to assertive smoke malt aroma will be in balance with other aroma characters

source: CraftBeer.com


American Imperial Stout

Style Family: Stouts

American-style imperial stouts are the strongest in alcohol and body of the stouts. Black in color, these beers typically have an extremely rich malty flavor and aroma with full, sweet malt character. Bitterness can come from roasted malts or hop additions.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.080 - 1.100
  • FG1.020 - 1.030
  • ABV7.0% - 12.0%
  • IBU50 - 80
  • BU:GU0.62 - 0.80
  • SRM40+
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation70 - 75

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable
  • ColorBlack
  • ClarityOpaque
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Moderate
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Cheeses
  • EntréeFoie Gras
  • DessertFlour-less Chocolate Cake
  • GlassSnifter
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are medium-high to high, with floral, citrus and/or herbal hop aromas. Hop bitterness is medium-high to very high and balanced with the malt character
  • Hop IngredientsHorizon, Kent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorBittersweet Chocolate, Cocoa, Coffee
  • Malt IngredientsPale, Black Roasted Barley, Special "B", CaraMunich, Chocolate, Pale Chocolate
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishLong
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity esters are generally high

source: CraftBeer.com


American Stout

Style Family: Stouts

A coffee- and chocolate-forward ale, but with a hop aroma and flavor, often from a citrus-forward variety. American stouts are bold, with a distinctive dry-roasted bitterness in the finish. Fruity esters should be low, but head retention high. The addition of oatmeal is acceptable in this style and lends to the body and head retention.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.050 - 1.075
  • FG1.010 - 1.022
  • ABV5.7% - 8.9%
  • IBU35 - 60
  • BU:GU0.70 - 0.80
  • SRM40+
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 - 3
  • Apparent Attenuation71 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessAdditional ingredients such as coffee, chocolate, vanilla beans, cherries are common, as is oak aging
  • ColorBlack
  • ClarityClear to Opaque
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseSharp Cheddar
  • EntréeGrilled Lamb
  • DessertCoffee Cake
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are medium to high, often with American citrus-type and/or resiny hop aromas. Hop bitterness is medium to high
  • Hop IngredientsHorizon, Centennial
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorLow to medium malt sweetness with low to medium caramel, chocolate, and/or roasted coffee flavor is present, with a distinctive dry-roasted bitterness in the finish. The contribution of roasted barley and roasted malt to astringency is low and not excessive. Slight roasted malt acidity is acceptable
  • Malt IngredientsPale, Black Roasted Barley, Chocolate, Crystal
  • Other ingredientsOats (occasionally)
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-esters flavors are low, if present

source: CraftBeer.com


English-Style Oatmeal Stout

Style Family: Stouts

The addition of oatmeal adds a smooth, rich body to these beers. Oatmeal stouts are dark brown to black in color. Roasted malt character is caramel-like and chocolate-like, and should be smooth and not bitter. Coffee-like roasted barley and malt aromas are prominent. This low- to medium-alcohol style is packed with darker malt flavors and a rich and oily body from oatmeal.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.038 - 1.056
  • FG1.008 - 1.020
  • ABV3.8% - 6.1%
  • IBU20 - 40
  • BU:GU0.53 - 0.71
  • SRM20+
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation64 - 79

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • ColorDark Brown to Black
  • ClarityOpaque
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Cheddar
  • EntréeChicken in Mole Sauce
  • DessertSweet Potato Cheesecake
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are optional, but should not overpower the overall balance if present. Hop bitterness is medium
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorCoffee-like roasted barley and roasted malt aromas are prominent. Caramel-like and chocolate-like roasted malt aroma should be evident
  • Malt IngredientsPale, Flaked Oats, Chocolate, Victory, Crystal, Black Roasted Barley
  • Other ingredientsOats
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity ester flavors are very low
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl should be absent or at extremely low levels

source: CraftBeer.com


English-Style Sweet Stout (Milk Stout)

Style Family: Stouts

Sweet stout, also referred to as cream stout or milk stout, is black in color. Malt sweetness, chocolate and caramel should dominate the flavor profile and contribute to the aroma. It also should have a low to medium-low roasted malt/barley-derived bitterness. Milk sugar (lactose) lends the style more body. This beer does use lactose sugar, so people with an intolerance should probably avoid this style.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.045 - 1.056
  • FG1.012 - 1.020
  • ABV3.2% - 6.3%
  • IBU15 - 25
  • BU:GU0.33 - 0.45
  • SRM40+
  • CO2 Volumes1.5 - 2
  • Apparent Attenuation64 - 73

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • ColorBlack
  • ClarityOpaque
  • Country of OriginUnited Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseButtery Cheddar
  • EntréeMexican Mole, Spicy BBQ
  • DessertChocolate Cake, Ice Cream
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived. Hop bitterness is low to medium-low and serves to balance and suppress some of the sweetness without contributing apparent flavor nor aroma
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt sweetness, chocolate, and caramel should dominate the flavor profile. Malt bitterness is low to medium-low and derived from roasted malt or barley
  • Malt IngredientsBritish Pale Ale, Black Patent, Pale Chocolate, Crystal
  • Other ingredientsLactose
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterHigh carbonate water

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity ester flavors are low, if present

source: CraftBeer.com


Irish-Style Dry Stout

Style Family: Stouts

Dry stouts are black. These beers achieve a dry-roasted character through the use of roasted barley. The emphasis on coffee-like roasted barley and a moderate degree of roasted malt aromas define much of the character. Hop bitterness is medium to medium high. This beer is often dispensed via nitrogen gas taps that lend a smooth, creamy body to the palate.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.038 - 1.048
  • FG1.008 - 1.012
  • ABV4.2% - 5.3%
  • IBU30 - 40
  • BU:GU0.79 - 0.83
  • SRM40+
  • CO2 Volumes1 - 1.5
  • Apparent Attenuation75 - 79

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable
  • ColorBlack
  • ClarityClear to Opaque
  • Country of OriginIreland
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseIrish Cheddar
  • EntréeSeafood (Oysters), Ham
  • DessertChocolate Desserts
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are are not perceived to low, from European-type hops. Hop bitterness is medium to medium high
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorDry stouts achieve a dry-roasted character through the use of roasted barley. Initial malt and light caramel flavors give way to a distinctive dry-roasted bitterness in the finish. Emphasis of coffee-like roasted barley and a moderate degree of roasted malt flavors define much of the character
  • Malt IngredientsBritish Pale Ale, Flaked Barley, Black Roasted Barley
  • Palate BodySoft to Mouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterModerate carbonate water

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style.
  • EstersFruity esters are minimal and overshadowed by malt, high hop bitterness and roasted barley character
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl should be very low, if evident

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Bock

Style Family: Bocks

Traditional bocks are all-malt brews and are high in malt sweetness. Malt character should be a balance of sweetness and toasted or nut-like malt. “Bock” translates as “goat”!

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.066 - 1.074
  • FG1.018 - 1.024
  • ABV6.3% - 7.6%
  • IBU20 - 30
  • BU:GU0.30 - 0.41
  • SRM20 - 30
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation68 - 73

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessA decoction mash is commonly used
  • ColorDark Brown to Very Dark
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Swiss
  • EntréeGrilled Rib-Eye
  • DessertChocolate
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor is low. Hop bitterness is perceived as medium, increasing proportionately with starting gravity
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorHigh malt character with aromas of toasted or nut-like malt, but not caramel
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Munich, CaraMunich, Meussdoerffer Rost, Melanoidin
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterModerate carbonate water

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style.
  • EstersFruity-ester aromas should be minimal, if present

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Doppelbock

Style Family: Bocks

“Doppel” meaning “double,” this style is a bigger and stronger version of the lower-gravity German-style bock beers. Originally made by monks in Munich, this style is very food-friendly and rich in mellanoidins reminiscent of toasted bread. Color is copper to dark brown. Malty sweetness is dominant but should not be cloying. Malt character is more reminiscent of fresh and lightly toasted Munich-style malt, more so than caramel or toffee malt. Doppelbocks are full-bodied, and alcoholic strength is on the higher end.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.074 - 1.080
  • FG1.014 - 1.020
  • ABV6.6% - 7.9%
  • IBU17 - 27
  • BU:GU0.23 - 0.34
  • SRM12 - 30
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation75 - 81

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessA decoction mash is commonly used
  • ColorCopper to Dark Brown
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseStrong Cheeses
  • EntréePork or Ham
  • DessertGerman Chocolate Cake
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma should be absent. Hop flavor and bitterness are low
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorDominant aromas are reminiscent of fresh and lightly toasted Munich-style malt, more so than caramel or toffee. Some elements of caramel and toffee can be evident in aroma and contribute to complexity, but the predominant malt aroma is an expression of toasted barley
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Munich, Vienna, CaraMunich
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersPrune, Plum, Grape

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Maibock

Style Family: Bocks

Also called “heller bock” (meaning “pale bock”), this style is paler in color and more hop-centric than traditional bock beers. A lightly toasted and/or bready malt character is often evident.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.066 - 1.074
  • FG1.012 - 1.020
  • ABV6.3% - 8.1%
  • IBU20 - 38
  • BU:GU0.30 - 0.51
  • SRM4 - 9
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 82

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessA decoction mash is commonly used
  • ColorPale to Light Amber
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseSwiss
  • EntréeHam
  • DessertWhite Chocolate Cheesecake
  • GlassGoblet
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are low to medium low, deriving from noble-type hops. Hop bitterness is low
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorA lightly toasted and/or bready malt aroma is often evident. Roasted or heavy toast/caramel malt aromas should be absent
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Munich, Vienna
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruity-ester flavors may be low, if present

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Weizenbock

Style Family: Bocks

This beer is a wheat version of a German-style bock, or a bigger and beefier dunkelweizen. Malt mellanoidins and weizen ale yeast are the star ingredients. If served with yeast, the appearance may appropriately be very cloudy.With flavors of bready malt and dark fruits like plum, raisin, and grape, this style is low on bitterness and high on carbonation. Balanced clove-like phenols and fruity, banana-like esters produce a well-rounded aroma.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.066 - 1.080
  • FG1.016 - 1.028
  • ABV7.0% - 9.5%
  • IBU15 - 35
  • BU:GU0.23 - 0.44
  • SRM4.5 - 30
  • CO2 Volumes2.5 - 3
  • Apparent Attenuation65 - 76

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessA decoction mash is commonly used. Unfiltered and yeasty
  • ColorGold to Very Dark
  • ClarityHazy
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseManchego
  • EntréeChicken and Dumplings
  • DessertBanana Bread
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is not perceived. Hop bitterness is low
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorNutmeg, vanilla, caramel, plums, prunes, raisins, grapes and cocoa, with rum and brandy flavors to boot. Medium malty sweetness is present. If dark, a mild roasted malt aroma and flavor should emerge
  • Malt IngredientsMalted Wheat, Munich, Special "B", Crystal, Pale Chocolate
  • Palate BodyModerate to Mouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeWeizen Ale
  • PhenolsClove
  • EstersFruity-ester and banana-like elements
  • Fermentation ByproductsIf served with yeast, appearance may appropriately be very cloudy

source: CraftBeer.com


Scotch Ale/Wee Heavy

Style Family: Scottish-Style Ales

Scotch ales are overwhelmingly malty, with a rich and dominant sweet malt flavor and aroma. A caramel character is often part of the profile. Some examples feature a light smoked peat flavor. This style could be considered the Scottish version of an English-style barley wine. Overly smoked versions would be considered specialty examples.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.072 - 1.085
  • FG1.016 - 1.028
  • ABV6.6% - 8.5%
  • IBU25 - 35
  • BU:GU0.35 - 0.41
  • SRM15 - 30
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation67 - 78

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Noticeable to Hot
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessTraditionally, cooler ale fermentation temperatures were common
  • ColorLight Reddish Brown to Very Dark
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginScotland / United Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Moderate
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheesePungent Cheeses
  • EntréeVariety of Meats and Game
  • DessertCreamy Desserts with Fruit
  • GlassThistle
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived. Hop bitterness is low but perceptible
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorDominated by a smooth, balanced sweet maltiness. Will also have a medium degree of malty, caramel-like aroma and flavor
  • Malt IngredientsBritish Pale Ale, Crystal, Honey, Pale Chocolate, Munich and even Roasted Barley
  • Palate BodyMouth-Coating
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterSoft Water (occasionally)

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersPlums, Raisin, Dried Fruit. A peaty/smoky character may be evident at low levels
  • Fermentation ByproductsYeast characters such as diacetyl and sulfur are acceptable at very low levels

source: CraftBeer.com


Scottish-Style Ale

Style Family: Scottish-Style Ales

Scottish-style ales vary depending on strength and flavor, but in general retain a malt-forward character with some degree of caramel-like malt flavors and a soft and chewy mouthfeel. Some examples feature a light smoked peat flavor. Hops do not play a huge role in this style. The numbers commonly associated with brands of this style (60/70/80 and others) reflect the Scottish tradition of listing the cost, in shillings, of a hogshead (large cask) of beer. Overly smoked versions would be considered specialty examples. Smoke or peat should be restrained.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.030 - 1.050
  • FG1.006 - 1.018
  • ABV2.8% - 5.3%
  • IBU9 - 25
  • BU:GU0.30 - 0.50
  • SRM6 - 15
  • CO2 Volumes1.5 - 2
  • Apparent Attenuation64 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessHigh-temperature mash is common to emphasize a more dextrinous wort, lending bigger body and mouthfeel and decreasing fermentable sugars. Traditionally, cooler ale fermentation temperatures were common.
  • ColorGolden to Dark Chestnut or Brown
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginScotland / United Kingdom
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Moderate
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Slow to Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheesePungent Cheeses
  • EntréeVariety of Meats and Game
  • DessertCreamy Desserts with Fruit
  • GlassThistle
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived. Hop bitterness is low.
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorCaramel, Toffee
  • Malt IngredientsBritish Pale Ale, Crystal, Honey, Pale Chocolate, Munich and even Roasted Barley
  • Other ingredientsWheat Malt, Sugar (occasionally)
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationLow to Medium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterHigh carbonate water

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsPeaty, Earthy, Smoky
  • EstersNot common to style.
  • Fermentation ByproductsDiacetyl and sulfur are acceptable at very low levels.

source: CraftBeer.com


American Brett

Style Family: Wild/Sour Beers

These unique beers vary in color and can take on the hues of added fruits or other ingredients. Horsey, goaty, leathery, phenolic and some fruity acidic character derived from Brettanomyces organisms may be evident, but in balance with other components of the beer. Brett beer and sour beer are not synonymous.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OGVaries
  • FGVaries
  • ABVVaries
  • IBUVaries
  • BU:GUVaries
  • SRMVaries
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent AttenuationVaries

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessWood vessels may be used during the fermentation and aging process. Blending is also common
  • ColorVaries
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseEarthy Farmhouse Cheeses
  • EntréeGrilled or Roasted Game
  • DessertFruit-Filled Pastries
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma, flavor and bitterness are evident over a full range from low to high
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsFruit (occasionally)
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeBrettanomyces, Ale/Lager possible
  • PhenolsCan be present
  • EstersCan be present
  • MicroorganismsBrettanomyces possible

source: CraftBeer.com


American Sour

Style Family: Wild/Sour Beers

The acidity present in these beers is usually in the form of lactic, acetic and other organic acids naturally developed with acidified malt in the mash, or produced during fermentation by the use of various microorganisms. These beers may derive their sour flavor from pure cultured forms of souring agents or from the influence of barrel aging.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OGVaries
  • FGVaries
  • ABVVaries
  • IBUVaries
  • BU:GUVaries
  • SRMVaries
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent AttenuationVaries

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessWood vessels may be used during the fermentation and aging process, but wood-derived flavors such as vanillin must not be present
  • ColorAny range of color, and may take on the color of other ingredients
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseStrongly Flavored Cheeses
  • EntréeVaries
  • DessertCreamy Desserts with Fruit
  • GlassGoblet
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma, flavor and bitterness are evident over a full range from low to high
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorIn darker versions, roasted malt, caramel-like and chocolate-like aromas are subtly present
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsVaries
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature40-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle, Brettanomyces possible
  • PhenolsCan be present.
  • EstersModerate to intense, yet balanced, fruity ester aromas are evident
  • MicroorganismsLactobacillus
  • Fermentation ByproductsBacteria- and yeast-induced haze are acceptable at any temperature

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Flanders

Style Family: Wild/Sour Beers

An ale with character and balance, thanks to lactic sourness and acetic acid. Cherry-like flavors are acceptable, as is malt sweetness that can lend bitterness and a cocoa-like character. Oak or other wood-like flavors may be present, even if the beer was not aged in barrels. Overall, the style is characterized by slight to strong lactic sourness, and Flanders “reds” sometimes include a balanced degree of acetic acid. Brettanomyces-produced flavors may be absent or very low. This style is a marvel in flavor complexity, combining malt, yeast, microorganisms, acidity and low astringency from barrel aging.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.056
  • FG1.008 - 1.016
  • ABV4.8% - 6.6%
  • IBU5 - 18
  • BU:GU0.11 - 0.32
  • SRM12 - 25
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation71 - 82

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessBlending is common. Oak-like or woody characters may be pleasantly integrated into the overall palate when aged in oak barrels
  • ColorCopper to Very Dark
  • ClarityBrilliant to Slight Haze
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMimolette
  • EntréeBeef Carbonnade
  • DessertPumpkin Pie
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are not perceived. Hop bitterness is perceived to be very low to medium-low
  • Hop IngredientsKent Goldings
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorRoasted malt aromas including a cocoa-like character are acceptable at low levels. A very low degree of malt sweetness may be present
  • Malt IngredientsVienna, Munich Special "B", Aromatic
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeBrettanomyces
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersFruit-ester aromas, which are often cherry-like, are apparent. May also have notes of raisins, plums, figs and prunes
  • MicroorganismsLactobacillus possible
  • Fermentation ByproductsSome versions may be more highly carbonated and, when bottle-conditioned, may appear cloudy when served

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Fruit Lambic

Style Family: Wild/Sour Beers

Often known as cassis, framboise, kriek, or peche, a fruit lambic takes on the color and flavor of the fruit it is brewed with. It can be dry or sweet, clear or cloudy, depending on the ingredients. Notes of Brettanomyces yeast are often present at varied levels. Sourness is an important part of the flavor profile, though sweetness may compromise the intensity. These flavored lambic beers may be very dry or mildly sweet.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.040 - 1.072
  • FG1.008 - 1.016
  • ABV5.0% - 8.9%
  • IBU15 - 21
  • BU:GU0.29 - 0.38
  • SRMVaries
  • CO2 Volumes4 approximately
  • Apparent Attenuation78 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessOld lambic is blended with newly fermenting young lambic to create this style. Fruit is added as well. These beers are aged in oak
  • ColorHued with color reflecting the choice of fruit
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Rocky to Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseChèvre
  • EntréePineapple Ceviche
  • DessertChocolate Creme Caramel
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma, flavor and bitterness are not perceived to very low, and can include cheesy or floral lavender notes
  • Hop IngredientsAged, stale hops
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorSweet malt characters are not perceived
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Flaked Wheat
  • Other ingredientsUnmalted Wheat, Fruit
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationHigh
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle, Brettanomyces possible
  • PhenolsCan be present
  • EstersCan be present.
  • MicroorganismsLactobacillus and Pediococcus
  • Fermentation ByproductsCloudiness is acceptable

source: CraftBeer.com


Belgian-Style Lambic/Gueuze

Style Family: Wild/Sour Beers

Naturally and spontaneously fermented beers with high to very high levels of esters, plus bacterial and yeast-derived sourness that sometimes includes acetic flavors. Lambics are not blended, while the gueuze style blends old and new lambics which are re-fermented in the bottle. Historically, they are dry and completely attenuated, exhibiting no residual sweetness either from malt, sugar or artificial sweeteners. Sweet versions may be created through the addition of sugars or artificial sweeteners. Many examples of this style are made to resemble the gueuze lambic beers of the Brussels area, where it originated.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.056
  • FG1.000 - 1.010
  • ABV6.3% - 8.9%
  • IBU9 - 23
  • BU:GU0.20 - 0.41
  • SRM6 - 13
  • CO2 Volumes1 - 1.5
  • Apparent Attenuation82 - 100

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessOld lambic is blended with newly-fermented young lambic. These beers are aged in oak
  • ColorGold to Medium Amber
  • ClarityBrilliant (but haze may exist from yeast sediment from bottle fermentation)
  • Country of OriginBelgium
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Mousse-like
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMascarpone with Fruit
  • EntréeShellfish (Mussels)
  • DessertRich Chocolate Cake
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma, flavor and bitterness are not perceived to very low, and can include cheesy or floral lavender notes
  • Hop IngredientsAged, stale hops
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorSweet malt characters are not perceived
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Flaked Wheat
  • Other ingredientsUnmalted Wheat
  • Palate BodyDrying to Soft
  • Palate CarbonationVery Low to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature40-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle, Brettanomyces possible
  • EstersHigh to very high fruity ester aromas are present
  • MicroorganismsLactobacillus and Pediococcus
  • Fermentation ByproductsCharacteristic horsey, goaty, leathery and phenolic aromas derived from Brettanomyces yeast are often present at moderate levels

source: CraftBeer.com


Contemporary Gose

Style Family: Wild/Sour Beers

Straw to medium amber, gose is cloudy from suspended yeast. A wide variety of herbal, spice, floral or fruity aromas other than found in traditional Leipzig-Style Gose are present, in harmony with other aromas. Salt (table salt) character is traditional in low amounts, but may vary from absent to present. Body is low to medium-low. Low to medium lactic acid character is evident in all examples as sharp, refreshing sourness.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.036 - 1.056
  • FG1.008 - 1.012
  • ABV4.4-5.4
  • IBU10 - 15
  • BU:GU0.28 - 0.27
  • SRM3 to 9
  • CO2 Volumes3.3 - 4.5
  • Apparent Attenuation77.78 - 78.5

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessMay be fermented with pure beer yeast strains, or with yeast mixed with bacteria. Contemporary Gose may be spontaneously fermented and should exhibit complexity of acidic, flavor and aroma contributed by introduction of wild yeast and bacteria into the fermentation
  • ColorStraw to Light Amber
  • ClarityCloudy/ Hazy
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy to Rocky
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseQueso Fresco
  • EntréeWatermelon Salad
  • DessertGreek Yogurt Lemon Mousse
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorNone
  • Hop Ingredients
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorGrainy
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner and Wheat
  • Other ingredientsTable Salt, herbs, spices or fruit
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature40-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • MicroorganismsLactobacilus, Brettanomyces
  • Fermentation ByproductsHorsey, leathery or earthy flavors contributed by Brettanomyces yeasts may be evident but have a very low profile, as this beer is not excessively aged

source: CraftBeer.com


American Lager

Style Family: Pilseners and Pale Lagers

American lager has little in the way of hop and malt character. A straw to gold, very clean and crisp, highly carbonated lager.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.040 - 1.048
  • FG1.006 - 1.014
  • ABV4.1%-5.1%
  • IBU5 - 15
  • BU:GU0.13 - 0.31
  • SRM2 - 6
  • CO2 Volumes2.2 - 2.7
  • Apparent Attenuation70.83 - 85.00

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild
  • ColorStraw to Gold
  • ClarityBrilliant to Clear
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Poor
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Thin
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseSmear Ripened Cheeses
  • EntréePho
  • DessertKettle Corn Balls
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorLow
  • Hop IngredientsVariety of bittering hops may be used
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorGrainy
  • Malt Ingredients2-Row and 6-Row Barley
  • Other ingredientsCorn, Rice and other adjuncts are often used
  • Palate BodyDrying
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • Water

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • EstersLow fruity-ester flavors are acceptable

source: CraftBeer.com


Bohemian-Style Pilsener

Style Family: Pilseners and Pale Lagers

Bohemian-style pilseners have a slightly sweet and evident malt character and a toasted, biscuit-like, bready malt character. Hop bitterness is perceived as medium with a low to medium-low level of noble-type hop aroma and flavor. This style originated in 1842, with “pilsener” originally indicating an appellation in the Czech Republic. Classic examples of this style used to be conditioned in wooden tanks and had a less sharp hop bitterness despite the similar IBU ranges to German-style pilsener. Low-level diacetyl is acceptable. Bohemian-style pilseners are darker in color and bigger in final gravity than their German counterparts.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.056
  • FG1.014 - 1.020
  • ABV4.1% - 5.1%
  • IBU30 - 45
  • BU:GU0.68 - 0.80
  • SRM3 - 7
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation64 - 68

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessDecoction mash provides a rich malt character
  • ColorStraw to Light Amber
  • ClarityClear to Brilliant
  • Country of OriginCzech Republic
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseMild White Cheddar
  • EntréeShellfish, Chicken, Salads
  • DessertShortbread Cookies
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma and flavor are low to medium-low, deriving from noble-type hops. Hop bitterness is medium
  • Hop IngredientsCzech Saaz
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorToasted, biscuit-like, and/or bready malt flavors along with low levels of fermented-malt-derived sulfur compounds may be evident
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, CaraPils
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterLow mineral content

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersNot common to style
  • Fermentation ByproductsLow levels of fermentation-derived sulfur compounds may be evident. Very low levels of diacetyl and DMS flavors may be perceived

source: CraftBeer.com


European-Style Export

Style Family: Pilseners and Pale Lagers

Sometimes referred to as a “Dortmunder export,” this beer has the malt-forward flavor and sweetness of a German-style helles, but the bitter base of a German-style pilsener.This lager is all about balance, with medium hop character and firm but low malt sweetness. Look for toasted malt flavors and spicy floral hop aromas.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.048 - 1.056
  • FG1.010 - 1.014
  • ABV5.1% - 6.1%
  • IBU23 - 29
  • BU:GU0.48 - 0.52
  • SRM3 - 6
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation75 - 79

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • ColorStraw to Deep Golden
  • ClarityClear
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseChèvre
  • EntréeGrilled Steak
  • DessertBread Pudding
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor and aroma are very low to low, deriving from noble-type hops. Hop bitterness is medium
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorSweet malt flavor can be low and should not be caramel-like
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Munich
  • Palate BodyModerate
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterGypsum, Chalk

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersNot common to style

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Helles

Style Family: Pilseners and Pale Lagers

“Helles” means “pale in color,” as these beers are often golden. They are similar in flavor to adjunct-influenced lagers, but possess more advanced pilsener malt flavor and have a touch more sweetness, and are less dry in the finish. A full-bodied lager that puts pilsener malt flavors forward and can be perceived as bready. A slight sweetness permeates with just a hint of hop spiciness. Clean and crisp, this is a refreshing beer with substance. Low levels of yeast-produced sulfur aromas and flavors may be common.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.050
  • FG1.008 - 1.012
  • ABV4.8% - 5.6%
  • IBU18 - 25
  • BU:GU0.41 - 0.50
  • SRM4 - 5.5
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation76 - 82

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • ColorPale to Golden
  • ClarityClear to Brilliant
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseColby
  • EntréeSamosas
  • DessertBaklava
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is not perceived to low. Hop flavor and bitterness are very low to low, deriving from European noble-type hops
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt character is sometimes bread-like, yet always reminiscent of freshly and very lightly toasted malted barley
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner, Munich
  • Palate BodyModerate
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort to Medium
  • Temperature45-50°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style.
  • EstersNot common to style

source: CraftBeer.com


German-Style Pilsener

Style Family: Pilseners and Pale Lagers

A classic German-style pilsener is straw to pale in color. A malty residual sweetness can be perceived in aroma and flavor. Perception of hop bitterness is medium to high. Noble-type hop aroma and flavor are moderate and quite obvious. Distinctly different from Bohemian-style pilsener, this style is lighter in color and body and has a lower perceived hop bitterness.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.044 - 1.055
  • FG1.006 - 1.012
  • ABV4.6% - 5.3%
  • IBU25 - 40
  • BU:GU0.57 - 0.73
  • SRM3 - 4
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation78 - 86

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable
  • ColorStraw to Pale
  • ClarityBrilliant
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium to Fast Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseWhite Cheddar
  • EntréeShellfish, Chicken, Salads
  • DessertShortbread Cookies
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor is moderate and quite obvious, deriving from late hopping (not dry-hopping) with noble-type hops. Hop bitterness is medium to high
  • Hop IngredientsGerman Noble
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorA sweet, malty residual aroma can be perceived
  • Malt IngredientsPilsner
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium to High
  • Palate Length/FinishShort
  • Temperature40-45°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersNot common to style.
  • Fermentation ByproductsVery low levels of DMS aroma may be present, usually below most beer drinkers’ taste thresholds and not detectable except to the trained or sensitive palate

source: CraftBeer.com


American Black Ale

Style Family: Specialty Beers

Characterized by the perception of caramel malt and dark roasted malt flavor and aroma. Hop bitterness is perceived to be medium-high to high. Hop flavor and aroma are medium-high. Fruity, citrus, piney, floral and herbal character from hops of all origins may contribute to the overall experience. This beer is often called a black IPA or Cascadian dark ale.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.056 - 1.075
  • FG1.012 - 1.018
  • ABV6.3% - 7.6%
  • IBU50 - 70
  • BU:GU0.89 - 0.93
  • SRM35+
  • CO2 Volumes2 - 2.5
  • Apparent Attenuation76 - 79

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Mild to Noticeable
  • ColorVery Dark to Black
  • ClarityClear to Opaque
  • Country of OriginUnited States
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Good
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Foamy
  • Carbonation (Visual)Medium Rising Bubbles

Food Pairings

  • CheeseBlue Cheeses, Aged Gouda
  • EntréeGrilled Shrimp and Grits
  • DessertChocolate Truffles
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is medium-high to high, with hops of all origins contributing fruity, floral, herbal or other notes
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMedium caramel malt and dark roasted malt aromas are evident
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Palate BodySoft
  • Palate CarbonationMedium
  • Palate Length/FinishMedium to Long
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeAle
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersCan be present

source: CraftBeer.com


Barrel-Aged Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

A wood- or barrel-aged beer is any lager, ale or hybrid beer, either a traditional style or a unique experimental beer, that has been aged for a period of time in a wooden barrel or in contact with wood. This beer is aged with the intention of imparting the unique character of the wood and/or the flavor of what has previously been in the barrel. Today’s craft brewers are using wood (mostly oak) to influence flavor and aromatics. Beer may be aged in wooden barrels (new or previously used to age wine or spirits), or chips, spirals and cubes may be added to the conditioning tanks that normally house beer. A variety of types of wood are used including oak, apple, alder, hickory and more. The interior of most barrels is charred or toasted to further enhance the flavor of the wood.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OGVaries
  • FGVaries
  • ABVVaries
  • IBUVaries
  • BU:GUVaries
  • SRMVaries
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent AttenuationVaries

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessAging in wood barrels necessary
  • ColorVaries
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseVaries
  • EntréeVaries
  • DessertVaries
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsWood Aging
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale. May have Brettanomyces character
  • PhenolsCan be present
  • EstersCan be present

source: CraftBeer.com


Chocolate Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

This is an ale or lager that benefits from the addition of dark chocolate or cocoa. More common in porters, stouts and brown ales, where the grain bill better complements the confectionery ingredient, it can be added to other styles as well. Overt bitterness is not acceptable in this style. Little hop character is desired and the chocolate flavor does not need to be overwhelming. The style can vary greatly in approach and flavor profile depending on the brewer.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.030 - 1.110
  • FG1.006 - 1.030
  • ABV2.5% - 12.0%
  • IBU15 - 40
  • BU:GU0.36 - 0.50
  • SRM15 - 50
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • ColorLight Brown to Black
  • ClarityBrilliant to Opaque
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Goat Cheeses
  • EntréeVenison Mole
  • DessertRaspberry Torte
  • GlassSnifter
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor and aroma are lower than might be expected for the style. Under-hopping allows chocolate to contribute to the flavor profile while not becoming excessively bitter. Hop bitterness is very low to medium-low.
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMedium-low to medium-high malt sweetness helps accent cocoa flavors and aromas.
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsChocolate
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present.
  • EstersCan be present.

source: CraftBeer.com


Coffee Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

As the name suggests, this can be either a lager or ale with coffee added to boost flavor. While stouts and porters are popular base styles for coffee beer, many craft breweries are experimenting with other styles, like cream ales and India pale ales. Brewers may steep the beans in either water or beer to impart java flavor without adding acidity. Barrel-aged or wood-influenced versions may show signs of oxidation, including sherry notes and other advanced flavors.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.030 - 1.110
  • FG1.006 - 1.030
  • ABV2.5% - 12.0%
  • IBU15 - 45
  • BU:GU0.50 - 0.41
  • SRM4 - 50
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessCoffee is used in any of its forms to create a distinct (ranging from subtle to intense) character.
  • ColorPale to Black
  • ClarityBrilliant to Opaque
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseAged Semi-Hard Cheeses
  • EntréePork Tenderloin
  • DessertVanilla Ice Cream
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor is reflective of aroma and can be low to high depending on the intent of the underlying style. Hop bitterness is very low to medium-high.
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMedium-low to medium malt sweetness helps accent coffee flavors and aromas.
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsCoffee
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present.
  • EstersCan be present.

source: CraftBeer.com


Fruit and Field Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

Fruit beers are made with fruit, or fruit extracts are added during any portion of the brewing process, providing obvious yet harmonious fruit qualities. This idea is expanded to “field beers” that utilize vegetables and herbs.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.030 - 1.110
  • FG1.006 - 1.030
  • ABV2.5% - 13.3%
  • IBU5 - 45
  • BU:GU0.17 - 0.64
  • SRM5 - 50
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessVaries
  • ColorPale to Very Dark
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseCreamy Cheeses
  • EntréeSalads
  • DessertVanilla Ice Cream
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop bitterness is very low to medium-high
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt sweetness is very low to medium-high
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsFruit, Vegetables
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • TemperatureVaries
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present
  • EstersCan be present

source: CraftBeer.com


Gluten Free

Style Family: Specialty Beers

Barley, wheat, oats, rye and spelt commonly contain gluten, so look for other fermentables to be featured in these beers. A beer (lager, ale or other) that is made from fermentable sugars, grains and converted carbohydrates. Ingredients do not contain gluten.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OGVaries
  • FGVaries
  • ABVVaries
  • IBUVaries
  • BU:GUVaries
  • SRMVaries
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent AttenuationVaries

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessTypically brewed without malt
  • ColorVaries
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseVaries
  • EntréeVaries
  • DessertVaries
  • GlassFlute
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalted barley, wheat and other gluten-rich grains should not be perceived
  • Malt IngredientsN/A
  • Other ingredientsFermentable sugars, grains and converted carbohydrates that do not contain gluten
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • TemperatureVaries
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present.
  • EstersCan be present
  • MicroorganismsLactobacillus and Pediococcus

source: CraftBeer.com


Herb and Spice Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

This is a lager or ale that contains flavors derived from flowers, roots, seeds or certain fruits or vegetables. Typically the hop character is low, allowing the added ingredient to shine through. The appearance, mouthfeel and aromas vary depending on the herb or spice used. This beer style encompasses innovative examples as well as traditional holiday and winter ales.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.030 - 1.110
  • FG1.006 - 1.030
  • ABV2.5% - 12.0%
  • IBU5 - 40
  • BU:GU0.17 - 0.36
  • SRM5 - 50
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • ColorAny range of color depending on the underlying style
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseVaries
  • EntréeVaries
  • DessertVaries
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop aroma is not essential, but may be evident at low levels and should not dominate over the herb or spice character
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsHerbs, Spices
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present
  • EstersCan be present.

source: CraftBeer.com


Honey Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

Both lagers and ales can be brewed with honey. Some brewers will choose to experiment with ingredients, while others will add honey to traditional styles. Overall the character of honey should be evident but not totally overwhelming. A wide variety of honey beers are available. U.S. brewers may add honey to the boil kettle (as a sugar source) or post-boil (to preserve more volatile aromatics).

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.030 - 1.110
  • FG1.006 - 1.030
  • ABV2.5% - 12.0%
  • IBU1 - 100
  • BU:GU0.03 - 0.91
  • SRMVaries
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • ColorVaries
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseRicotta
  • EntréeBruschetta
  • DessertLemon Basil Gelato
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop bitterness is very low to very high, and may be used for highlighting desired characteristics.
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsHoney
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present.
  • EstersCan be present.

source: CraftBeer.com


Pumpkin Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

One of the most popular seasonal beers, this is a lager or ale that is brewed with fresh or processed pumpkin or winter squash. Since the fruit does not have much of a taste by itself, many craft brewers have taken to adding spices typically found in pumpkin pie, like cinnamon and clove. However, these flavors should not overpower the final product. Pumpkin can be found in everything from stouts to pale ales and pilseners.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.030 - 1.110
  • FG1.006 - 1.030
  • ABV2.3% - 12.0%
  • IBU5 - 70
  • BU:GU0.17 - 0.64
  • SRM5 - 50
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent Attenuation73 - 80

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • Brewing/Conditioning ProcessBeer brewed with pumpkins (Cucurbito pepo) or winter squash as an adjunct in either the mash, kettle or primary or secondary fermentation, providing obvious (ranging from subtle to intense) yet harmonious qualities
  • ColorAny range of color depending on the underlying style
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseCamembert
  • EntréeRoasted Turkey
  • DessertCoffee Ice Cream
  • GlassTulip
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop bitterness is low to medium-low
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorMalt sweetness is low to medium-high
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsPumpkin, Squash
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature50-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present
  • EstersCan be present.

source: CraftBeer.com


Rye Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

In darker versions, malt flavor can optionally include low roasted malt characters (evident as cocoa/chocolate or caramel) and/or aromatic toffee-like, caramel, or biscuit-like characters. Low-level roasted malt astringency is acceptable when balanced with low to medium malt sweetness. Hop flavor is low to medium-high. Hop bitterness is low to medium. These beers can be made using either ale or lager yeast. The addition of rye to a beer can add a spicy or pumpernickel character to the flavor and finish. Color can also be enhanced and may become more red from the use of rye. The ingredient has come into vogue in recent years in everything from stouts to lagers, but is especially popular with craft brewers in India pale ales. To be considered an example of the style, the grain bill should include sufficient rye such that rye character is evident in the beer.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OGVaries
  • FGVaries
  • ABVVaries
  • IBUVaries
  • BU:GUVaries
  • SRMVaries
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent AttenuationVaries

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • ColorInclusion of rye can create a wide range of color. Lighter versions: Straw to Copper. Darker versions: Dark Amber to Dark Brown
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseWensleydale
  • EntréeJerk Chicken
  • DessertSavory Bread Pudding
  • GlassVase
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorHop flavor and aroma are low to medium-high. Hop bitterness is low to medium
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorIn darker versions, malt aromas can optionally include low roasted malt characters evident as cocoa/chocolate or caramel, and/or aromatic toffee-like, caramel, or biscuit-like characters
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsGrist should include sufficient rye such that rye character is evident in the beer
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsNot common to style
  • EstersLow level fruity-ester flavors are typical
  • Fermentation ByproductsIn versions served with yeast, appearance may range from hazy to very cloudy

source: CraftBeer.com


Session Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

This beer style is not defined by flavors or aromas, which can place it in almost any style category. Instead, what makes a session beer is primarily refreshment and drinkability. Any style of beer can be made lower in strength than described in the classic style guidelines. The goal should be to reach a balance between the style’s character and the lower alcohol content. Drinkability is a factor in the overall balance of these beers. Beer should not exceed 5 percent ABV.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.034 - 1.040
  • FG1.004 - 1.010
  • ABV4.0% - 5.0%
  • IBU10 - 35
  • BU:GU0.29 - 0.87
  • SRM2+
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent Attenuation75 - 88

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Not Detectable to Mild
  • ColorVaries
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseVaries
  • EntréeVaries
  • DessertVaries
  • GlassVaries
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsVaries
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • TemperatureVaries
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present.
  • EstersCan be present.

source: CraftBeer.com


Smoke Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

When malt is kilned over an open flame, the smoke flavor becomes infused into the beer, leaving a taste that can vary from dense campfire, to slight wisps of smoke. Any style of beer can be smoked; the goal is to reach a balance between the style’s character and the smoky properties. Originating in Germany as rauchbier, this style is open to interpretation by U.S. craft brewers. Classic base styles include German-style Marzen/Oktoberfest, German-style bock, German-style dunkel, Vienna-style lager and more. Smoke flavors dissipate over time.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OGVaries
  • FGVaries
  • ABVVaries
  • IBUVaries
  • BU:GUVaries
  • SRMVaries
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent AttenuationVaries

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • ColorVaries
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginGermany
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseParmesan
  • EntréeGrilled Vegetables
  • DessertGingerbread Cookies
  • GlassNonic Pint
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsCommon woods used by U.S. craft brewers to smoke a variety of malts: Apple, Alder, Beech, Cherry, Hickory, Mesquite, Oak
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present
  • EstersCan be present

source: CraftBeer.com


Specialty Beer

Style Family: Specialty Beers

Special ingredients used in this style should be distinctive and evident in either the aroma, flavor or overall balance of the beer. This style category is a catch-all. Any specialty beer that does not fit other specialty beer styles would be appropriately considered here. Examples can include sahti, roggenbier, steinbier, white IPA, session IPA and more.

Quantitative Style Statistics

  • OG1.030 - 1.140
  • FG1.006 - 1.030
  • ABV2.5% - 25.0+%
  • IBU1 - 100
  • BU:GUVaries
  • SRMVaries
  • CO2 VolumesVaries
  • Apparent AttenuationVaries

U.S. Commercial Examples

Style A-Z

  • Alcohol Varies
  • ColorVaries
  • ClarityVaries
  • Country of OriginUndetermined
  • Collar of Foam (Head Retention)Varies
  • Collar of Foam (Texture)Varies
  • Carbonation (Visual)Varies

Food Pairings

  • CheeseVaries
  • EntréeVaries
  • DessertVaries
  • GlassSnifter
  • Hop Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Hop IngredientsVaries
  • Malt Aroma/FlavorVaries
  • Malt IngredientsVaries
  • Other ingredientsSpecial or unusual ingredients or a combination of ingredients that bump a beer out of the other styles. For example, a "White IPA" is a combination of a Belgian-Style Wit and American IPA. Examples of specialty or unusual ingredients include maple syrup, potatoes, nuts, etc. Some beers use ingredients in unusual ways, such as a chili-flavored beer that emphasize heat rather than chili flavor, or a juniper berry beer in which the juniper is expressed more as herbal or spice qualities than as a berry or fruity character
  • Palate BodyVaries
  • Palate CarbonationLow to High
  • Palate Length/FinishVaries
  • Temperature45-55°F
  • WaterVaries

Yeast

  • TypeLager or Ale
  • PhenolsCan be present.
  • EstersCan be present

source: CraftBeer.com


Republishing and Permissions

Republishing of the CraftBeer.com Beer Style Guide, in its entirety or as excerpts, is granted providing the following requirements are met:

  • The following verbiage must appear in all print, web, app or other instances that reference the CraftBeer.com Beer Styles Guide: “2017 CraftBeer.com Beer Styles Guide (http://www.craftbeer.com/beer-styles-guide) published by the Brewers Association.
  • When republishing any content of the Style Guide, the text may not be altered or paraphrased.
  • Please do not request alternative file versions. What is available is already published on CraftBeer.com.

Credits

  • Contributors: Ted Burnham, Julia Herz, John Holl, Cindy Jones, Meghan Storey, Luke Trautwein, Andy Sparhawk, Grant Puza, Nate Zander
  • Sources: Brewers Association Style Guidelines 2017,  The Oxford Companion to Beer, CraftBeer.com Beer glossary, BJCP, Designing Great Beers by Ray Daniels, Brewing Classic Styles by Jamil Zainasheff and John J. Palmer and Radical Brewing by Randy Mosher.
  • Inspirations: Charlie Papazian, Chris Swersey, Paul Gatza, Chuck Skypeck, Gordon Strong, Don Blake, Beer Judge Certification Program Style Guidelines, Cicerone®, Ray Daniels, Designing Great Beers, Oregon State University, Randy Mosher, Siebel Institute, Master Brewers Association of the Americas, All About Beer magazine, Melissa Monosoff
  • Comments,  suggestions, questions: contact Julia Herz: julia@brewersassociation.org

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